Giyan


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Giyan

 

an ancient settlement of settled farmers and cattle-raisers, 70 km south of Hamadan, Iran.

Archaeological excavations have uncovered cultural strata 19 m thick, divided into five complexes. Giyan V, within which there are four phases, belongs to the end of the fifth and the beginning of the fourth millennium B.C. Painted ceramics with geometric ornamentation were widespread in Giyan V-A. Brass objects and drawings of goats appear in Giyan V-B and drawings of birds in Giyan V-C. Giyan V-D is characterized by ceramics of the Susa A type.

The ceramics of Giyan IV (third millennium B.C.) are characterized by stylized depictions of birds. Many brass objects were found in the graves of Giyan IV, including an axe, spearheads, and pins. The culture of Giyan IV is distinct from Susian culture and may belong to the Lullubi. Giyan III (end of the third and beginning of the second millennium B.C.) is characterized by three-legged goblets with line decoration. Vessels with birds and solar disks depicted on them are widespread in Giyan II. In Giyan I (end of the second and beginning of the first millennium B.C.), unpainted ceramics (black and red) prevail, and iron objects begin to appear.

REFERENCES

Contenau, G., and R. Ghirshman. Fouilles du Tépé-Giyan. Paris, 1936.
McCown, D. E. The Comparative Stratigraphy of Early Iran. Chicago, 1942.

V. M. MASSON

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