Giza


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Giza,

 

Gizeh

(both: gē`zə), or

Al Jizah

(äl jē`zö), city (1990 est. pop. 2,680,500), capital of Giza governorate, N Egypt, surburb of Cairo. It is a manufacturing and agricultural trade center. Products include textiles, cigarettes, and apparel. Giza is the seat of government ministries, cultural and research institutes, the Univ. of Cairo, and Egypt's film industry. The area was settled in antiquity. Nearby are the three Great Pyramidspyramid.
The true pyramid exists only in Egypt, though the term has also been applied to similar structures in other countries. Egyptian pyramids are square in plan and their triangular sides, which directly face the points of the compass, slope upwards at approximately a
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, surrounded by mastabas, with the Great Sphinxsphinx
, mythical beast of ancient Egypt, frequently symbolizing the pharaoh as an incarnation of the sun god Ra. The sphinx was represented in sculpture usually in a recumbent position with the head of a man and the body of a lion, although some were constructed with rams'
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 to the south; it has been a heavily trafficked sightseeing area for centuries.

Giza

 

or Al Jizah, a city in the Arab Republic of Egypt, in Upper Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, on the Cairo-Aswan railroad. The southwestern suburb of Cairo. Population, 571,200 (1966). It is a major trade (mainly grain) and tourism center. There is some tobacco industry.

Near Giza, in the Libyan Desert, stand the majestic pyramid-tombs of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus). They were built in the first half of the third millennium B.C. and in Hellenistic literature were listed as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The grandest is the pyramid of Khufu, or the Great Pyramid (architect, Heminunu; height, 146.6 m; base length, 233 m). The pyramid of Khafre is 143.5 m high and 215.25 m long at the base. The pyramid of Menkaure is 62 m high and 108.4 m long at the base. A memorial temple was joined to each pyramid on the eastern side and was connected by a passageway to the smallest (lowest) temple in the valley. Near the lowest temple of Khafre’s pyramid is the Great Sphinx, a fantastic being with the body of a lion and a portrait head of the pharaoh, carved out of a cliff (length, 57 m; height, 20 m).

There is also a necropolis in the field of the pyramids, where over 7,000 noble Egyptians from the second to the sixth dynasties are buried. Excavations began in the 19th century. The tombs of Giza have provided rich material for studying the means of production, social life, and culture of Egypt in the time of the Old Kingdom (c. 2800-c. 2250 B.C.). Many tombs revealed objects of the burial cult, household utensils, work tools, and weapons. One tomb contained a set of flint knives, which were used along with bronze knives. Pottery of all kinds and some sculpture were found. Beautiful bas-reliefs with scenes from the lives of the deceased as well as hieroglyphic inscriptions were uncovered in several tombs.

REFERENCES

Reisner, G. A. A History of the Giza Necropolis, vols. 1-2. Cambridge-London, 1942-55.
Hassan, S. Excavations at Giza, vols. 1-10. Cairo, 1932-60.
Junker, H. Giza, vols. 1-12. Vienna-Leipzig, 1929-55.
References in periodicals archive ?
Khalid Gareeb, a local rights activist, said that Giza residents have repeatedly complained about frequent water cuts.
Prior to that Giza was Director of Worldwide Sales and Service for GSI Group's optical scanning product line.
New Giza is set to complete and hand over more housing units in the first phase of its project this year, the report added.
Within Giza Systems, VAS Integrated Solutions will be in a position to accelerate its development in Egypt, Middle East and Africa region for the benefit of all customers," notes Eric Desnos, VP AMEA (Africa-Middle-East-Asia).
Several discoveries at the city and Khentkawes town suggest Giza was a thriving port, archaeologist Mark Lehner, the director of Ancient Egypt Research Associates, said.
The Giza North and Banha plants are scheduled to enter service by the middle of 2013 in time to help the country meet its peak power demands during the summer.
Summary: The sales comprised 334 tonnes of the Giza 88 variety and 192 tonnes of Giza 86-says official.
One Christian was killed and dozens were wounded in Giza on Wednesday when about 3,000 Orthodox Copts hurled stones at police lines.
The Giza Pyramids at Cairo, painted in 1946, had been given by Churchill to his friend General Jan Christian Smuts, a South African statesman who served as a British field marshal in the Second World War.
based contract manufacturer have hired Matthew Giza from Middlefield, Conn.
Summary: New tombs found in Giza support the view that the Great Pyramids were built by free workers and not slaves.
25 (Petra)--His Majesty King Abdullah II on Sunday sent a cable to Egyptian President Mohammad Hosni Mubarak condoling him over victims of the train collision in Giza south of the Egyptian capital Cairo.