the glass used in glazing, in the construction of transparent and semitransparent partitions, in the covering of walls, and in the facing and decoration of stairways and other parts of buildings. Construction glass also includes heat-insulating and soundproofing materials (foam glass, glass wool), as well as glass tubing.
Among the different types of glass used in construction are window glass, plate glass, heavy sheet glass, wire glass, patterned glass, colored glass, shaped glass, glass blocks, insulation glass units, marbled glass, mosaic tiles, uviol glass, and stemalit (a facing glass coated on one side with a ceramic pigment).
Window glass is manufactured in sheets ranging in size from 400 × 400 mm to 1,600 × 2,200 mm. The thickness is 2–6 mm, and the density, 2,470–2,500 kg/m3. The average strength under symmetrical bending is 40 meganewtons/m2 (400 kilograms-force/cm2). Window glass transmits between 84 and 87 percent of the light.
Plate glass, which has a minimum optical distortion, is used for display cases, windows of public buildings, and mirrors. Tempered plate glass 10–20 mm in thickness is used to make door panels ranging from 2,200 × 700 mm to 2,600 × 1,040 mm in size.
Patterned glass has an impressed design on one side that serves to scatter light. It ranges in size from 400 × 400 mm to 1,200 × 1,800 mm and has a thickness of 3–6.5 mm. Patterned glass with a matted or frosted surface is often used for stairwells and partitions.
Colored glass may be colored throughout or may consist of a main colorless layer and a thin colored layer. It is used in stained-glass panels and in ornamenting furniture and glazing.
Shaped glass has a cross section in the shape of a channel or box. It is used as a wall material in, for example, garages, kiosks, and bus stops. Shaped glass has a thickness of 6 mm and transmits between 0.6 and 0.75 percent of the light.
Marbled glass is produced through a rolling process and is used as a wall covering in industrial and public buildings.
Glass tubing is used in chemical and food-processing plants; it also finds use in agriculture. The tubing’s resistance to corrosion is higher than that of metal pipe. Friction losses incurred during the passage of a fluid through glass tubing are 22 percent lower than losses in new cast-iron pipe and 6.5 percent lower than those in new steel pipe. Glass tubing is manufactured with internal diameters ranging from 38 to 200 m.
REFERENCESTekhnologiia stekla, 4th ed. Moscow, 1967.
Bondarev, K. T. Steklo vstroitel’stve. Kiev, 1969.
M. N. PAVLUSHKIN