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the coating of candy with icing or sugar (powdered sugar), chocolate, or a grease glaze (hydrogenated fat). More rarely the sweets are caramelized or are coated with glaze made of a pomade or of a soya or fruit gelatin base. Chocolate glazing consists of a homogeneous chocolate mass made of ground cocoa and powdered sugar, with the addition of milk products or crushed almonds. Grease glazing is made of hydrogenated (confectionary) fats, powdered sugar, ground cocoa, and soybean flour or peanut oilcake. These glazes contain no less than 32 percent fat and up to 56 percent sugar, with a moisture content of up to 2 percent. Candy is glazed on a glazing machine or manually. On a glazing machine, the candy is fed by means of a feeder and a mesh transporter into a chamber in which it is coated. After glazing, the products are cooled in the chamber at a temperature of 7°-12° C.
REFERENCETekhnologiia konditerskogo proizvodstva, 2nd ed. Edited by A. L. Sokolovskii. Moscow, 1959.
a process used in treating the surface of chrometanned, casein-covered, and Russian leather. It is done on a glazing machine by polishing the right side of air-dry leather (with a moisture content of 15-19 percent) with a smooth glass, steel, agate, or jasper roller that moves along a closed curve. Glazing distributes the dye more equally on the leather, giving it a mirrorlike surface and luster. The pressure of the roller makes the leather more dense, decreasing its thickness by 8 to 16 percent. The leather becomes more airproof, its ductile strength increases, and the size of the leather remains virtually unchanged. As a result of the decrease in the production of casein-covered leather, glazing is being replaced with pressing.
the setting of glass in, for example, windows, doors, and skylights in buildings and other structures. Various types of glass, including window, plate, patterned, and stained, are used in glazing, as are glass bricks and laminated glass. The two steps involved in glazing are preparation of the glass (laying out to size) and the fitting and sealing of the glass in frames.
In modern, prefabricated construction, window and door units, as a rule, are glazed at the prefabricated-housing combines. When standard frames are used, the cutting of the glass is done at the glass factory. The laying out and cutting of glass for nonstandard frames, as well as other preparatory work, is carried out mainly at central shops equipped with special cutting tables, patterns, and glass cutters (diamond, electric, pneumatic).
The glass is fitted by various means, depending on the type of window and the structural material involved. This step requires the use of putties (made with chalk, bitumen, or whiting), mastics, and gaskets (of rubber or plastic). These materials both protect the glass against breakage arising from deformation of the frame and seal the glass in the channel of the frame. Glass is set in wooden frames with a double layer of putty and fastened with beads and with metal points and clips, which are driven into the frame with a special automatic gun. In metal and reinforced-concrete frames, glass is attached using screw-on beads and clips and is sealed with either mastics or rubber gaskets. Lift trucks and mobile rigs and cranes having transoms with vacuum suckers are used in setting large panes of glass, for example, store windows. Glass bricks are set with a cement mortar in a manner similar to that used in masonry.
REFERENCESKlochanov, P. N., and Iu. S. Eidinov. Maliarnye, stekol’nye i oblitsovochnye raboty. Moscow, 1964.
Gnitsevich, E. P., and N. N. Zavrazhin. Peredovye metody organizatsii proizvodstva otdelochnykh rabot. Moscow, 1975.
N. N. ZAVRAZHIN
The application of finely ground glass, or glass-forming materials, or a mixture of both, to a ceramic body and heating (firing) to a temperature where the material or materials melt, forming a coating of glass on the surface of the ware. Glazes are used to decorate the ware, to protect against moisture absorption, to give an easily cleaned sanitary surface, and to hide a poor body color.
Glazes are classified and described by the following characteristics: surface—glossy or matte; optical properties—transparent or opaque; method of preparation—fritted or raw; composition—such as lead, tin, or boron; maturing temperature; and color. Opaque glazes contain small crystals embedded in the glass, but special glazes in which a few crystals grow to recognizable size are called crystalline glazes. See Ceramics, Glass