glutamine

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glutamine

(glo͞o`təmēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
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 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian protein. Its structure is identical to that of glutamic acidglutamic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian proteins.
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, except that the acidic side-chain carboxyl group of glutamine has been coupled with ammonia, yielding an amide. The glutamic acid-glutamine interconversion is of central importance to the regulation of the levels of toxic ammonia in the body, and it is thus not surprising that when the concentrations of the amino acids of blood plasma are measured, glutamine is found to have the highest of all. Glutamine can donate the ammonia on its side chain to the formation of ureaurea
, organic compound that is the principal end product of nitrogen metabolism in most mammals. Urea was the first animal metabolite to be isolated in crystalline form; its crystallization was described in the early 18th cent.
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 (for eventual excretion by the kidneys) and to purinespurine,
type of organic base found in the nucleotides and nucleic acids of plant and animal tissue. The German chemist Emil Fischer did much of the basic work on purines and introduced the term into the chemical literature in the early 20th cent.
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 (necessary for the synthesis of genetic material). Once glutamine is incorporated into proteins, its relatively unreactive side-chain amide participates in very few reactions. Glutamine is not essential to the human diet, since it can be synthesized in the body from glutamic acid. Glutamine was isolated from beet juice in 1883, but was not isolated from a protein until 1932; it was chemically synthesized in 1933.

glutamine

[′glüd·ə‚mēn]
(biochemistry)
C5H10O3N2 An amino acid; the monamide of glutamic acid; found in the juice of many plants and essential to the development of certain bacteria.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, there was no significant difference between treatment with Gln, Glu and Gln+Glu in terms of the rates of maturation and fertilization.
Work with internal communications to inform employees about the importance of data standardization and the organization's shift to GLN standards.
This highly expandable and scalable model allows us to connect to up to 99 users including GLN Classrooms with multiple students, and individual students logging in from home or their office, while remaining fully integrated into one virtual GLN Teaching Studio.
Practical Business Instruction for Farmers - GLN will leverage the expertise and innovation of the virtual collaboration, to provide farmers participating in the network with practical solutions to their problems.
During the quarter ended 30 September 2010, GLN Corporation produced 17,315 oz of gold ('Au'), bringing total production for nine months to 30 September 2010 to 50,865 oz Au.
Based upon the pilot program findings, GHX and its customers have determined that while GLN implementation touches various aspects of a supplier's operations, there are ways to successfully streamline the time and resources needed to modify data, systems and processes," said Matt Houston, director, Product Management Exchange Services, at GHX.
Many studies investigated the effects of Gln supplementation in the diet of livestock and poultry (Lackeyram et al.
Details from the second wave of the program are available in the report "Sunrise Ready": Lessons from Premier's Ongoing GLN Transaction Program .
GLN has 421 independent freight forwarder members in 125 countries boasting combined annual revenue of $ 8.
Through the customer master cleanse service, GHX cross-references a manufacturer's proprietary customer numbers with the GS1 GLN Registry for Healthcare, then appends the GLN to the associated customer master and sends the manufacturer a file containing this modified data.