Glushko, Valentin Petrovich
Born Aug. 20 (Sept. 2), 1908, in Odessa. Soviet scientist in the field of physical and technical problems of power engineering. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1958; corresponding member 1953); twice Hero of Socialist Labor (1956 and 1961). Member of the CPSU since 1956.
Glushko became interested in problems of astronautics in 1923. He began to correspond with K. E. Tsiolkovskii in 1923, and since 1924 he has published popular-scientific and scientific works on astronautics. After completing his studies at Leningrad University (1925-29), he worked at the Gas Dynamics Laboratory. His main works are devoted to theoretical and experimental research on vital questions of the creation and development of liquid-fuel rocket engines. Glushko was the founder of Soviet rocket-engine construction and was one of the pioneers in rocket technology; he constructed the world’s first electrothermal rocket engine (1929-33) and the first Soviet liquid-fuel rocket engines (1930-31). He has constructed several types of liquid-fuel engines, including the ORM, ORM-l-ORM-102 (1930-38), and the RD-l-RD-3 (1939-46). In 1930 he proposed the use of nitric acid, solutions of nitrogen tetroxide in nitric acid, tetranitromethane, hydrogen peroxide, chloric acid, beryllium, and gunpowder with beryllium as components of liquid rocket fuel and devised a contoured nozzle and thermal insulation of the combustion chamber by means of zirconium dioxide. In 1931 he proposed chemical ignition and self-igniting fuel, as well as a gimbal suspension of liquid-fuel rocket engines to control the rocket’s flight. In 1931-33 he developed fuel-supply units for liquid-fuel engines—piston, turbine-pump with centrifugal pumps, and other types. Glushko was a deputy to the seventh and eighth convocations of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR; he has received the Lenin Prize (1957), the State Prize of the USSR (1967), three Orders of Lenin, the Order of the October Revolution, the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, and medals.
WORKSRakety, ikh ustroistvo i primenenie. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935. (With G. E. Langemak.)
Zhidkoe toplivo dlia reaktivnykh dvigatelei, part 1. Moscow, 1936.
Raketnaia tekhnika: Sb. st., fasc. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937 and other years.