glycol

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glycol

(glī`kōl), dihydric alcoholalcohol,
any of a class of organic compounds with the general formula R-OH, where R represents an alkyl group made up of carbon and hydrogen in various proportions and -OH represents one or more hydroxyl groups.
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 in which the two hydroxyl groups are bonded to different carbon atoms; the general formula for a glycol is (CH2)n(OH)2. The most important glycol is the simplest, ethylene glycol, or 1,2-ethanediol, CH2OHCH2OH, a slightly sweet-tasting, somewhat viscous liquid that is miscible with water. Because of its low volatility (b.p. 197°C;) and low corrosive activity, it is widely used in mixtures of automobile antifreezeantifreeze,
substance added to a solvent to lower its freezing point. The solution formed is called an antifreeze mixture. Antifreeze is typically added to water in the cooling system of an internal-combustion engine so that it may be cooled below the freezing point of pure
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. Ethylene glycol can be esterified to form polyesters, e.g., DacronDacron
, trademark for a polyester fiber. Dacron is a condensation polymer obtained from ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. Its properties include high tensile strength, high resistance to stretching, both wet and dry, and good resistance to degradation by chemical bleaches
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, and can be nitrated to form an explosive used in mining. It is prepared commercially by oxidation of ethylene at high temperature over a silver oxide catalyst, followed by acid-catalyzed hydrolysishydrolysis
, chemical reaction of a compound with water, usually resulting in the formation of one or more new compounds. The most common hydrolysis occurs when a salt of a weak acid or weak base (or both) is dissolved in water.
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 of the ethylene oxide that is formed.

Cellosolves (e.g., methyl cellosolve, CH3OCH2CH2OH) are monoether derivatives of ethylene glycol. They are excellent solvents, having solvent properties of both ethers and alcohols; they have other uses as well. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to thicken shampoo and cosmetics. It can also be attached to other molecules via a process called pegylation. When pegylated to medicinal drugs, it can alter their distribution in the body, metabolism, and excretion. Such alteration can lead to improved dosing intervals and may also have beneficial effects on safety and efficacy. Pegylation can also mask certain drugs, such as interferon, from the immune system, preventing their rejection.

glycol

[′glī‚kȯl]
(organic chemistry)
Cn H2 n (OH)2 An organic chemical with two hydroxyl groups on an essentially aliphatic carbon chain. Also known as dihydroxy alcohol.
HOCH2CH2OH A colorless dihydroxy alcohol used as an antifreeze, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of dynamites and resins. Also known as ethlene glycol.
References in periodicals archive ?
4 2010-2015 Global and Chinese Supply and Consumption of Glycolic Acid
Smiling Beads Body Wash: Cleanse and buff away dirt, grime, and dead skin cells with the help of Pumice Powder, Sunflower Seed Wax, Glycolic acid, and Salicylic acid.
Sutura glycolic acid copolymer and lactic acid, one strand multifilament interlaced color purple, sliver absorbable gauge scale measurement by usp 20.
Beauty ed says: This new exfoliating cleanser contains glycolic acid to slough away dead skin, and cocoa and shea butter to nourish.
OUR VERDICT: Although the Glycolic peel is a milder form of chemical peel (when not left on too long or at too high a concentration) the decision to have one should not be taken lightly.
Olay Regenerist Night Renewal Elixir was developed as a tailor-made 'powerhouse' of ingredients including Olay Regenerist's signature penta-peptides, glycolic acid, humectants, anti-oxidants and skin soothers and conditioners -- all ideal for night-time use.
Our laboratory developed procedures for the simultaneous measurement of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid by gas chromatography--flame ionization detection (GC-FID) [1] (1) and by GC-MS (2).
After bathing, slick on a glycolic acid lotion (Neutrogena Healthy Skin Face Lotion or any 10-percent solution at stores like Sephora) mixed with a dab of hydrocortisone (the .
Hahn's company has sponsored a number of very small studies showing the potential for strontium to reduce itch from chemical irritants such as lactic and glycolic acids, histamine released during allergic reactions, and IgE-mediated allergic reactions.
Shawna Annis RN, BSN, and aesthetic medical practitioner for Professional Skin Solutions, recently completed Vivant 101, Glycolic Microdermabrasion and ProPeel training.
With aloe vera to soothe and glycolic acid to ease away fine lines, Anthony's Glycolic Facial Cleanser, right, will help hold back the years.
This week, health reporter JULIE CUSH had a long-overdue pampering session trying out the very latest treatment to hit the market, a glycolic peel, said to be favoured by stars such as actress Anna Friel and Elton John.