Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.



products of the combination (by means of readily hydrolyzable glycoside bonds) of cyclic 5- and 6-membered sugars with alcohol- or phenol-type materials. Glycoside bonds are formed between the acetal hydroxyl group of sugar and the hydroxyl group of the noncarbohy-drate component—the so-called aglycon (with the splitting off of a molecule of water). Depending on the participation of S, O, or N atoms in the formation of glycoside bonds, S-, O-, and N-glycosides are formed. The latter two groups of glycosides are very widespread in vegetable and animal tissues. The α and β-glycosides are differentiated by the spatial arrangement of the aglycon with respect to the plane of the carbohydrate component ring. The hydrolysis of these components takes place with the participation of the enzymes α- and β-glycosidase.

The Classification of glycosides is complicated by the variety of materials that function as the aglycon components and determine the specific biological action of the corresponding glycosides. Glucose-containing glycosides are called glucosides. The glycosides containing disaccharide residues include crocin (containing gentiobiose) and xanthorhamnin (rhamnose). Polysaccharides, which are also formed by glycoside bonds, are frequently included among the glycosides, but the enzymes that split these substances (for example, amylase) are included among the glycosidases. Many glycosides are dyes. A number of glycosides exhibit significant biological activity and are used in medicine and biology. The so-called cardiac glycosides, which are present in plants (the foxglove, lily of the valley, and Strophanthus), cause changes in heart activity; they are used for cardiac ailments, since they are capable of increasing the contraction of the heart muscle, strengthening and shortening the systole, and lengthening the diastole, which improves the heart’s blood circulation and eliminates congestion phenomena. The glycoside phlorizin is used experimentally for inducing glycosuria. The glycoside sapogenin induces erythrocyte hemolysis. An important role in the body is played by the glycosides that are formed upon the combination of ribose and deoxyribose sugars with nitrogen-containing bases—the so-called nucleosides. Their phosphorus derivatives, the nucleotides, participate in the building of nucleic acid and also are coenzymes.


Khimiia uglevodov. Moscow, 1967. Pages 205-32.


References in periodicals archive ?
PureCircle offers tailored combinations of steviol glycosides designed to address the unique sweetening needs of various food and beverage categories.
The phytochemical analysis of Andrachne cordifolia was carried out to determine the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugars, saponins and terpenoids of barks and leaves extracts of chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol and distilled water.
In these conditions, the sympathetic response is increased, thus sensitizing the myocardium and enhancing the toxicity of the Nerium glycosides (JOUBERT, 1989; ASLANI et al.
The glycosyl fluoride method, which was developed in the early 1980's, has now reached a stage at which it has become possible to produce extremely complex glycosides while controlling their stereochemistry.
Steviol glycosides are permitted food additives in the Codex Alimentarius General Standard for Food Additives, and in many countries including the USA, the European Union, Canada and many Asian, and Central and South American countries, Mr McCutcheon said.
Extensive research has revealed that the active compounds of ginkgo are flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones.
Effects of Malvidin and Its Glycosides on XO-1 Production in Supernatant and Cells.
In a study with carbonated beverages, a higher level of steviol glycosides was required to make a product that had a similar flavor profile to a full sugar control.
Besides these sweet glycosides stevia is also a nutrient rich herb containing substantial amount of other nutrients like 80 to 85 per cent water protein fibre amino acids free sugars iminosugar steviamine lipids essential oils ascorbic acid beta carotene riboflavin thiamine austroinulin nilacin rebaudi oxides gibberellic acid indole-3-acetonitrile apigenin quercetin isoquercitrin luteolin miocene kaempferol stigmasterol xanthophyllus umbeliferone chlorogenic acid caffeic acid dicaffeoylquinic acid chromium cobalt magnesium iron potassium phosphorus and trace elements.
Amino glycosides inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 30S subunit of the mycobacterium ribosome.
Steviol glycosides are the sweet-tasting molecules present in Stevia leaves.
It is reported in literature that some diterpenoids and glycosides of ent-Kaurane Glycosides boost the plants growth [3].