The excerpt he quotes therefore firmly associates the goliards
with metrical and rhythmical compositions, especially invectionem ridmicam (rhythmical invective), not to mention the Carmina Burana, one of whose poems Giraldus cites along with the Archpoet's confessio golie.
, as the authors were called, often referred to a mythical Golias as their leader and patron, ironically dignifying him with the titles of " Bishop " ( episcopus ) and " Archpoet " ( archipoeta ).
Such associations extend the Arlecchino's links backward to medieval extempore players and goliards
in Italy and France, while they illuminate commedia's continuing development during the mid sixteenth century in carnival, rustic farces, and dialect theater with lured types.
Significantly, there is no mention of the goliards
either in this article or in the index to the book.
In the Sorbonne the students held debates in Latin; there were even goliards
The goliards described themselves as followers of the legendary Bishop Golias; they were renegade clerics of no fixed abode who were chiefly interested in riotous living.
In 1227 the Council of Trier forbade priests to permit goliards to take part in chanting the service.