Gómez, Juan Vicente

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Gómez, Juan Vicente

(hwän vēsān`tā gō`mĕs), 1857–1935, caudillo of Venezuela (1908–35). Of indigenous and white parentage, Gómez was born on a ranch in the Western Andes and grew up a nearly illiterate cattle herder. He catapulted into the national scene in 1899 when he led his guerrilla henchmen in support of Cipriano CastroCastro, Cipriano
, 1858?–1924, president of Venezuela (1901–8). In 1899 he usurped the government, overthrowing Andrade. Called the Lion of the Andes by his followers, he was a stern and arbitrary caudillo, who nevertheless improved the country's economy.
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, under whom he was vice president. When Castro was overthrown, Gómez became president, and although he relinquished the title for long intervals, he ruled continuously from his estate near Maracay. Congress conferred on him the title El Benemérito (the meritorious), but his enemies dubbed him El Bagre (the catfish) because of a supposed facial resemblance enhanced by a bushy mustache. Though cordial and simple in manner, Gómez was an absolute tyrant whose secret police ferreted out opposition and subjected victims to imprisonment and torture. He was also a patriot whose shrewdness and industry brought his country economic stability. Even before the oil development at Lake Maracaibo after 1918, he had put Venezuela on a sound financial basis; he was noted for fair dealing with foreign investors, and the capital he attracted made it possible for him to build Venezuela into a modern nation of railroads, highways, and other public works. Public education during his regime advanced little. In enriching the nation, he made himself enormously wealthy. He attempted to make the country a personal fief; nepotism was rife. Though unmarried, he fathered between 80 and 100 children, and many of these, as well as his local henchmen, filled civil positions; he dominated them as he did other men by savage force of character.

Bibliography

See biography by J. Lavin (1954); study by B. S. McBeth (1983).

Gómez, Juan Vicente

 

Born July 24, 1857, in San Antonio de Tachira, in the state of Tachira; died Dec. 17, 1935, in Maracay. Military and government figure of Venezuela. President and de facto dictator of the country from 1909 to 1935. From 1901 to 1908 he was vice-president.

Gómez came to power in 1909 after a military coup that was carried out with the help of the imperialists of the USA. He distributed the high government offices to his closest relatives, often changed the constitution, prohibited all political parties and trade unions, and established a regime of bloody military and police terror. With the help of Gómez, the oil monopolies of the USA gained a position of control in the country’s economy and began to determine its external and internal policies. On bribes alone, which he collected in return for concessions and speculations, the dictator made $30 million and became one of the largest landowners in the western hemisphere. The Venezuelan workers were heroically opposed to Gómez’ dictatorship. After his death, the people destroyed the tyrant’s palace.

E. L. NITOBURG