Gondwanaland


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Gondwanaland

(gŏnd'wä`nəlănd'): see continental driftcontinental drift,
geological theory that the relative positions of the continents on the earth's surface have changed considerably through geologic time. Though first proposed by American geologist Frank Bursley Taylor in a lecture in 1908, the first detailed theory of
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.

Gondwanaland

 

(named after the historical region in middle India), a hypothetical continent that, in the opinion of many scientists, existed in the southern hemisphere in the Paleozoic era and partially in the Mesozoic era. It included a large part of contemporary South America (to the east of the Andes), Africa (without the Atlas Mountains), the island of Madagascar, Arabia, the Indian peninsula (south of the Himalayas), Australia (to the west of the mountain ranges in the east), and possibly a large portion of Antarctica. The proponents of Gondwanaland’s existence feel that in the Proterozoic era and the Upper Carboniferous period, extensive glaciation developed on the continent. Traces of Upper Carboniferous glaciation are evident in Central and South Africa, in the southern part of South America, and in India and Australia. During the Carboniferous and Permian periods, unique flora of the temperate and cold belts developed in Gondwanaland. This flora was characterized by an abundance of glossopteres and equisetums.

Gondwanaland began to break up in the Mesozoic era and by the end of the Cretaceous period and the beginning of the Paleogene epoch, the modern continents and their regions had separated. Many geologists feel that the breakup of Gondwanaland was a consequence of the horizontal separation of its modern parts, a fact confirmed by the data of paleomagnetism. However, instead of separation some scientists have proposed the collapse of individual areas of Gondwanaland that previously were situated on the site of the present-day Indian and southern Atlantic oceans.

REFERENCES

Mazarovich, A. N. Osnovy regional’noi geologii materikov. Part 2: luzhnye materiki, okeany i obshchie zakonomernosti razvitiia struktury zemnoi kory. [Moscow] 1952.
Gignoux, M. Stratigraficheskaia geologiia. Moscow, 1952. (Translated from French.)
Problemy peremeshcheniia materikov. Moscow, 1963. (Collection of articles; translated from English and German.)
Problemy paleoklimatologii. Trudy simpoziuma. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)

Gondwanaland

[gän′dwän·ə‚land]
(geology)
References in periodicals archive ?
Alternatively, they note that the fossil they found may have descended from a surprisingly ancient species that evolved in Gondwanaland.
When Tyrannosaurus and its relatives roamed North America and Asia, the abelisaurids occupied a similar niche in Patagonia and other areas of Gondwanaland.
the poles were not frozen the sea a slow gigantic circling gyre of lukewarm water around Gondwanaland until the breakup then this continent slowly wiggled herself loose from the others seeing how they drifted away as horizons .
This supports an origin for the genus in West Gondwanaland (Brenner, 1968; Jarzen, 1980; Jarzen & Dettmann, 1989).
3 A), there is not clear about the origin and the presence from this great magmatic belt of intermediate character in northwestern Gondwanaland.
The size of New Jersey, New Caledonia harbors a staggering concentration of endemic species, including remnants of the flora and fauna of the ancient southern supercontinent Gondwanaland.
The Antarctic is part of the ancient giant super-continent Gondwanaland,, which broke up.
Gondwanaland shifted between 535 million and 500 million years ago.
Webb is correct, however, to emphasize the possibility that the early inhabitants suffered from zoonotic diseases present in the remnant marsupial and monotreme populations, particularly since these animals would have been isolated from placental mammals, including hominids, from the Cretaceous Period, some 136 million years ago, prior to the breaking up of Gondwanaland.
Gondwanaland, the super-continent, existed in the geologic period millions of years ago when all the earth's continents were touching each other.