Gongorism


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Gongorism

 

an aristocratic school of Spanish 17th-century poetry, one of whose founders was the poet Luis de Góngora y Argote.

Analogous in many ways to Marinism in Italy and précieux literature in France, Gongorism rejected the Renaissance principles of accessibility in poetry and turned to an “aristocracy of the spirit” (gente culta). It sanctioned the “cult of pure form,” or plotlessness as a principle and intentional complexity of poetic language. In the 1620 sand 1630’s many Spanish Renaissance artistic figures such as Lope F. de Vega Carpio and Tirso de Molina criticized Gongorism. In the mid-17th century, however, Gongorism became the hegemonic trend in Spanish and Spanish-American poetry. In the 18th century, the term “Gongorism” became synonymous with affected, formalistic poetry. Interest in Gongorism was regenerated at the very beginning of the 20th century, under conditions of a crisis in bourgeois culture.

REFERENCES

Retortillo y Tornos. A. Examen crítico del gongorismo. Madrid, 1890.
Mérimée, E. Góngora et le gongorisme espagnol. Paris, 1911.
Kane, E. K. Gongorism and the Golden Age. Chapel Hill-London. 1928.

Z. I. PLAVSKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
5) In the late 1620s and 1630s, after Gongora's death, linguistic and thematic features of gongorism entered mainstream Spanish writing: Quevedo, Lope de Vega, and other writers first cultivated gongorism in order to mock it, but later wound up dabbling in it for many other literary uses.
One of the first colonial American writers inspired and guided by gongorism was Luis de Tejeda y Guzman, considered among Argentina's first Spanish-language writers, and probably Argentina's first native-born Spanish-language poet.
Tejeda's "Romance" is, moreover, the first known narrative poem from colonial Spanish America to appropriate gongorism, and specifically the gongorism of the Soledades, for the purpose of crafting a confessional autobiography structured as a transformative, spiritual journey.
Tejeda appropriates gongorism in order to embellish and add meaning to his journey through engano and his eventual transcendence of sin, but in doing so he offers a re-reading of Gongora's Soledades as a text with spiritual value.
6) John Beverley notes that gongorism became a quasi-official aesthetic discourse of the Spanish Empire ("Sobre" 35; 43), though perhaps it is more accurate to say that a diluted or revised version of gongorism acquired this role.