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good

Economics a commodity or service that satisfies a human need

Good

 

in ethics and philosophy, that which includes definite positive meaning. In philosophy the question of good was posed in attempts to explain the meaning of existence and human life and was treated as the problem of the greatest good (summum bonum in Latin, a term introduced by Aristotle); this greatest good determined the relative value of all other goods. The Greek philosophers viewed the greatest good as happiness— “eudaemonia” —the exact meaning of which was defined in various ways by representatives of different schools. For example, the Cyrenaics and Epicurus defined it as pleasure, the Cynics as abstention from passion, and Aristotle and the Stoics as virtue (in the sense of the supremacy of the higher and more rational forms of nature over the lower). Plato considered “the good” to be “the one” which is the basis of all existence. Aristotle distinguished three kinds of good: corporeal (health, strength), external (wealth, honor, glory), and spiritual (intelligence, moral virtue). In the Middle Ages, scholasticism attempted to rework the ideas of the ancient philosophers in terms of the principles of Christian theism. The result was the identification of the greatest good with god, the source of all good and the ultimate goal of human aspiration.

New European philosophy emphasized the role of the subject in determining any sort of good. T. Hobbes and B. Spinoza said that the good is that for which man is striving, that which he needs. Another development which was characteristic of new European ethics was the utilitarian interpretation of good, which reduces it to the idea of usefulness. Kant distinguished the supreme good from the absolute good. The former is good will and moral virtue; and latter requires that virtue be combined with happiness. Thereafter the concept of the good gradually lost its significance and, from the middle of the 19th century was replaced by the concept of value.

In the narrower and specifically ethical sense of the word, the concept of good is opposite to that of evil.

IU. N. POPOV

Material goods Economists consider material goods from two different points of view: in terms of their usefulness (their capacity for satisfying a particular human need) and in terms of how much man has contributed to their production. Accordingly, there are two kinds of value—use value and exchange value. Material goods are usually considered to include consumer goods (services as well as wares) which satisfy a great variety of human needs.

GOOD

References in periodicals archive ?
The Good Book also screened at International Christian Film Festival, Poconos Mountains Film Festival, Bedias, Texas, Christian Film Festival, Faith and Family Films, Christian Film Festival - Indianapolis, Kingdomwood Christian Film Festival, Louisville's International Festival of Film, and the I Will Tell NdinadZawapanga International Film Festival.
good book can calm my nerves and distract me from whatever challenges I have ahead.
Six recent books on the Bible look back at the people and places from whence the Good Book sprang, examine the ways we have interpreted these sacred writings, and ask how scripture has shaped our own language and politics.
Nicole Cooke says a good book is an essential part of relaxing after racing
While there aren't any exercises to help you learn how to use what you've learned, it is still a good book that will give you the insight you need to help you lead.
SANTA CLARITA - Librarians are ready to do whatever it takes to get residents to curl up with a good book.
As long as you can get around the fact that the main character is an acolyte of the God of S&M, this is a pretty good book.
HOTEL guests prefer a glass of hot milk or a good book to sex to get them off to sleep, a survey reveals.
Reflections of a Radical Moderate is a good book, but not because it breaks new ground.
Although it's a good book, don't expect anything new.
Steward attributes his success to biblical principles and faith, a blueprint for which he provides in his book Doing Business by the Good Book.