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good

Economics a commodity or service that satisfies a human need

Good

 

in ethics and philosophy, that which includes definite positive meaning. In philosophy the question of good was posed in attempts to explain the meaning of existence and human life and was treated as the problem of the greatest good (summum bonum in Latin, a term introduced by Aristotle); this greatest good determined the relative value of all other goods. The Greek philosophers viewed the greatest good as happiness— “eudaemonia” —the exact meaning of which was defined in various ways by representatives of different schools. For example, the Cyrenaics and Epicurus defined it as pleasure, the Cynics as abstention from passion, and Aristotle and the Stoics as virtue (in the sense of the supremacy of the higher and more rational forms of nature over the lower). Plato considered “the good” to be “the one” which is the basis of all existence. Aristotle distinguished three kinds of good: corporeal (health, strength), external (wealth, honor, glory), and spiritual (intelligence, moral virtue). In the Middle Ages, scholasticism attempted to rework the ideas of the ancient philosophers in terms of the principles of Christian theism. The result was the identification of the greatest good with god, the source of all good and the ultimate goal of human aspiration.

New European philosophy emphasized the role of the subject in determining any sort of good. T. Hobbes and B. Spinoza said that the good is that for which man is striving, that which he needs. Another development which was characteristic of new European ethics was the utilitarian interpretation of good, which reduces it to the idea of usefulness. Kant distinguished the supreme good from the absolute good. The former is good will and moral virtue; and latter requires that virtue be combined with happiness. Thereafter the concept of the good gradually lost its significance and, from the middle of the 19th century was replaced by the concept of value.

In the narrower and specifically ethical sense of the word, the concept of good is opposite to that of evil.

IU. N. POPOV

Material goods Economists consider material goods from two different points of view: in terms of their usefulness (their capacity for satisfying a particular human need) and in terms of how much man has contributed to their production. Accordingly, there are two kinds of value—use value and exchange value. Material goods are usually considered to include consumer goods (services as well as wares) which satisfy a great variety of human needs.

GOOD

References in periodicals archive ?
2, 2015 /PRNewswire/ --The National Association of Basketball Coaches (NABC), the Women's Basketball Coaches Association (WBCA) and Allstate Insurance Company today announced an all-time high 257 total nominees for the 2016 Allstate NABC and WBCA Good Works Teams[sup.
For more than two decades, the Allstate AFCA Good Works Team has served as one of the most coveted, prestigious off-the-field honors in college football.
For 23 years the Allstate AFCA Good Works Team has served as one of the most coveted and prestigious off-the-field honors in college football.
Summary: Continuing in social significant role , Jordan Commercial Bank (JCBank), supports the Jordanian Hashemite Fund for Human Development- Charity and Good Works Campaign which supports needy people, confirming its role in the social development and the advancement of the local community.
Written by a committed Christian, for committed Christians and those of all faiths who are committed to selfless good works in the name of the divine, The Christian Right.
And seeing that the Police Commission is made up of Villaraigosa appointees, Bratton's extension would seem to be a done deal -- except for the quibblers on the City Council who like to take credit for other people's good works.
Planting trees, cleaning rivers, recycling waste, all are in themselves good works but limited when compared with the greater theological reality so profoundly articulated by Berry.
Not because I disapprove of companies taking on good causes, or setting aside time and resources for good works.
Architects, with few exceptions, rather than ask questions or undertake good works, began before the ashes of the World Trade Center were even cold to provide answers and to seek work.
The following path combines self-awareness, empathy, learning, creative compensation, and good works.
These acts of charity, or good works, not only obligated those who received this charity, but they also obligated God to reward the donor with his promise of salvation.
When one looks at the medieval Catholic tradition as a whole, it is solidly Augustinian in its view that good works are a way of manifesting God's grace, not a way earning it.