Good and Evil

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Good and Evil


normative evaluative categories of moral consciousness, designating in a very generalized form what ought to be done (the morally positive, that which is right) and the morally negative (that which is reprehensible in the actions and motives of people as well as in the phenomena of social reality).

Since antiquity there has been a clash between the materialist and the idealist trends in ethics on the interpretation of the nature of good and evil. The materialists associate the two concepts with human needs and interests, the laws of nature, or the actual desires and strivings of people (naturalism), with pleasure and suffering and man’s happiness and unhappiness (hedonism and eudaemonism;, and with the real social significance of the actions of individuals for their life together. The idealists traced the concepts of good and evil to divine commandments or reason (and deviations from them) and to certain transcendental ideas, essences, and laws. Consequently, the conflict between good and evil acquired a metaphysical ontological meaning as a struggle between two eternal principles in the world. In some cases the idealists reduced the content of the concepts of good and evil to the expression of subjective desires, inclinations, and man’s sympathies or antipathies.

Only Marxist philosophy and ethics have provided a genuinely scientific, sociohistorical basis for the analysis of good and evil, by linking these concepts with the concrete contradictions in social reality and their specific reflection in the moral consciousness of certain epochs, social systems, and classes. Varying social conditions and moral consciousness have determined the differences in the understanding of the concrete content of good and evil throughout history. “The conceptions of good and evil have varied so much from nation to nation and from age to age, that they have often been in direct contradiction to each other,” wrote En-gels (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 20, p. 94).

Nevertheless, the concepts of good and evil have retained a certain extremely general content. As moral evaluations and prescriptions they have always expressed practical problems of members of society either in the contemporary period or in the distant future. On the one hand, these problems express the need to preserve the results that have already been achieved in a given culture. On the other hand, they express dissatisfaction with the status quo and look forward to further historical progress.

The idea of the good, wrote V. I. Lenin, reflects man’s demands on reality: “The world does not satisfy man, and man through his action decides to change it” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 29, p. 195). In communist morality the conflict between good and evil is conceived primarily on the level of the struggle to eliminate exploitation and social in-equality and to achieve the all-around development of the personality in a classless society.


Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Lafargue, P. “Ekonomicheskii determinizm Karla Marksa.” Soch., vol. 3. Moscow-Leningrad, 1931. Pages 82-101.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.


References in classic literature ?
Therefore, it follows necessarily that, if Pandolfo was not in the first rank, he was in the second, for whenever one has judgment to know good and bad when it is said and done, although he himself may not have the initiative, yet he can recognize the good and the bad in his servant, and the one he can praise and the other correct; thus the servant cannot hope to deceive him, and is kept honest.
These pairs of contraries have intermediates: the intermediates between white and black are grey, sallow, and all the other colours that come between; the intermediate between good and bad is that which is neither the one nor the other.
This belief was confirmed by his experience of women, which, having latterly been extended from the cultivated middle-class into the rural community, had taught him how much less was the intrinsic difference between the good and wise woman of one social stratum and the good and wise woman of another social stratum, than between the good and bad, the wise and the foolish, of the same stratum or class.
That makes the good and bad of manners, namely what helps or hinders fellowship.
But let us assume that what is called science can harmonize all contradictions and possesses an unchanging standard of good and bad by which to try historic characters and events; let us say that Alexander could have done everything differently; let us say that with guidance from those who blame him and who profess to know the ultimate aim of the movement of humanity, he might have arranged matters according to the program his present accusers would have given him- of nationality, freedom, equality, and progress (these, I think, cover the ground).
In these, instead or representing real people, the actors represented thoughts, feelings and deeds, good and bad.
You are not without the capacity of veneration, and faith and hope, and conscience and reason, and every other requisite to a Christian's character, if you choose to employ them; but all our talents increase in the using, and every faculty, both good and bad, strengthens by exercise: therefore, if you choose to use the bad, or those which tend to evil, till they become your masters, and neglect the good till they dwindle away, you have only yourself to blame.
Many lands saw Zarathustra, and many peoples: thus he discovered the good and bad of many peoples.
Verily, men have given unto themselves all their good and bad.