Gordium


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Gordium

(gôr`dēəm), ancient city of Asia Minor, in PhrygiaPhrygia
, ancient region, central Asia Minor (now central Turkey). The Phrygians, who settled here c.1200 B.C., came from the Balkans and apparently spoke an Indo-European language.
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 and later GalatiaGalatia
[Gr.,=Gaul], ancient territory of central Asia Minor, in present Turkey (around modern Ankara). It was so called from its inhabitants, the Gauls, who invaded from the west and conquered it in the 3d cent. B.C.
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, now in Turkey, 50 mi (80 km) SW of Ankara. It was the capital of Phrygia from c.1000 to 800 B.C. Excavations conducted since 1950 have revealed Hittite, Phrygian, Persian, Gallo-Grecian, and Greco-Roman remains. GordiusGordius
, in Greek mythology, king of Phrygia. An oracle had told the Phrygians that the king who would put an end to their troubles was approaching in an oxcart, and, thus, when Gordius, a peasant, appeared in his wagon, he was hailed king.
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 was the legendary founder of the city, and it was here that Alexander the Great is said to have cut the Gordian knot. It is also known as Gordion.

Gordium

 

(also Gordion), ancient capital of Phrygia, on the right bank of the Sangarius River, near the modern village of Pebi in Turkey.

The first excavations were conducted in 1900 and subsequent excavations, after 1951. Powerful defensive walls were unearthed (stone and adobe) as well as dwellings with a large quantity of domestic artifacts and an extensive necropolis with numerous objects. Judging from the nature of the burials and finds, the barrows of Gordium resemble those of the ancient Scythians. Finds date mostly from the eighth to the fifth century B.C. In the seventh century B.C., Gordium was largely destroyed by the Cimmerians.

REFERENCES

Young, R. S., A. W. Van Buren, and G. R. Edwards. “Gordion Excavations—Preliminary Reports. . . .” American Journal of Archaeology, 1955, vol. 59, no. 1; 1956, vol. 60, no. 3; 1957, vol. 61, no. 4; 1958, vol. 62, no. 2; 1959, vol. 63, no. 3: 1960, vol 64, no. 3.
Young, R. S. “Gordion on the Royal Road.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 1963, v. 107. no. 4.
References in periodicals archive ?
A past president of Oberlin College and the Aspen Institute, he began his career in classical archaeology, excavating at Gordium in modern Turkey and mapping the Persian Royal Road.
Alexander advanced to Gordium in the spring of 333 and accepted the oracular challenge by slashing through the famous knot with his sword to claim that he was destined to be the 'lord of Asia' (A.
In the city of Gordium, Alexander was laid low by a mysterious illness.