In Ecologica, Gorz
reminds us that this did not come about as a merely utilitarian adjustment to the crisis of global warming, but rather the other way around.
2) The failure to solve the problem of high unemployment (even with extended schooling, early retirements, sabbaticals, and generous vacation benefits helping to reduce the number of workers on the payrolls) isn't, according to Gorz
, any more surprising than was the failure of the communist governments of the former East Bloc to solve their fundamental economic problems.
Elles proviennent des auteurs cites plus haut: Andre Gorz
et Pierre Bourdieu.
That the "material environment" of consumption of which Gorz
writes has now apparently exhausted itself in the very nation where it could be developed to its fullest, and has probably been maximized to its physical and cultural limitations elsewhere, shows the need to rid ourselves of the traditional and no longer applicable measures of national economic well-being, such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Erich Fromm and Andre Gorz
held that consumer satisfaction, which serves as the main ideological justification of economic growth, arises from our alienation from work and community.
In comparison, the ecological politics of Andre Gorz
is much stronger in making the connections between socialism and environmentalism.
Like Andre Gorz
he advocates consuming less, but consuming better.
About 30 years ago, South End Press published Ecology as Politics by Andre Gorz
, compiled from two earlier books released in 1975 and 1977.
In reconstructing Marx's theory (particularly from recently published economic notebooks), Burket challenges any number of left critics of Marx, including Rudolf Bahro, Ted Benton, Geoffrey Carpenter, Jean-Paul Deleage, Andre Gorz
, Enrique Leff and others.
This argument was not without merit and it was with some relief, as Stan Cohen (1980) put it--borrowing perhaps from Andre Gorz
(1967)--that Thomas Mathiesen (1974), working with the Norwegian prisoners' movement KROM, proposed that abolitionists draw a distinction between positive and negative reforms.
One can also compare the example of Andre Gorz
, who like James stressed the autonomous activity of workers, and the importance of advocating worker self-management, in his early writings.
The challenge in sustaining the process lies in identifying and advocating what Trotsky called "transitional demands" and what Gorz
termed non-reformist reforms.