Grace Hopper

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Hopper, Grace,

1906–92, American computer scientist, b. New York City as Grace Brewster Murray. She was educated at Vassar College and Yale (Ph.D., 1934). After teaching at Vassar (1931–1943), she joined the U.S. Naval Reserve, serving on active duty until 1946. Assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance's computation project at Harvard, she worked on the Mark series of computers. At the conclusion of World War II she began her search for a means of making computer programs easier to write. Her answer was the compiler, a specialized program that translates instructions written in a programming language into the binary coding of machine language. In 1952 she unveiled the A-0 compiler, and Hopper began working on a compiler oriented to business tasks. In 1955 she introduced FLOW-MATIC, which became the prototype for the first commercially successful business-oriented programming languageprogramming language,
syntax, grammar, and symbols or words used to give instructions to a computer. Development of Low-Level Languages

All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is
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, COBOL. Hopper returned to active duty with the Navy in 1967, charged with leading the effort to combine various versions of COBOL into USA Standard COBOL. She retired in 1986 with the rank of rear admiral.


See biography by K. W. Beyer (2009).

Grace Hopper

US Navy Rear Admiral Grace Brewster Hopper (1906-12-09 to 1992-01-01), n?e Grace Brewster Murray.

Hopper is believed to have concieved the concept of the compiler with the A-0 in 1952. She also developed the first commercial high-level language, which eventually evolved into COBOL. She worked on the Mark I computer with Howard Aiken and with BINAC in 1949.

She is credited with having coined the term "debug", and the adage "it is always easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission" (with various wordings), which has been the guiding principle in sysadmin decisions ever since.

See also the entries debug and bug.

Hopper is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. In 1994, the US Navy named a new ship, the guided-missile destroyer USS Hopper, after her.
References in periodicals archive ?
GoDaddy ranked as one of the Anita Borg Institute's Top Companies for Women Technologists this year, and is a sponsor and presenter at this week's Grace Hopper Conference (GHC), the world's largest technical conference for women in computing.
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Grace Hopper once said, "Someday, on the corporate balance sheet, there will be an entry which reads, 'Information;' for in most cases, the information is more valuable than the hardware which processes it.
That history, of course, is a Who's Who of innovation and disruption in technology: Alan Turing, William Shockley, Grace Hopper, Pat Haggerty, and a host of others who paved the way for Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Tim Berners-Lee, Jimmy Wales, Sergey Brin, and Larry Page--present-day innovators who inspire and lead the way for future generations.
CEO Satya Nadella spoke Thursday at the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing in Phoenix, Arizona.
He was speaking at the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing conference in Phoenix.
Grace Hopper, a pioneering computer scientist, also affectionately known as "Grandma Cobol" after co-inventing Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL).
10 ( ANI ): Google is commemorating the 107th birthday of American computer scientist and US Navy Rear Admiral Grace Hopper.
She delivered her comments as a keynote speaker at the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing 2011, the world's largest gathering of women in computing.
The many contributions of Admiral Hopper are well discussed in Kurt Beyer's 2009 work published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age.
1950 - Lyons gives commercial support to making a civilian version of Colossus, called Leo I (IBM says it will never catch on)' 1952 - Coventry Corporation is world's first local authority to buy a commercial computer, Leo I' 1956 - first draft of Cobol written by Commander Grace Hopper (USNR) which becomes the world's favourite high level language' 1958 - British boffins invent The Stack, which is the basis of all microprocessor architectures'
Program Executive Office, Enterprise Information Systems (PEO EIS) announces that the Standard Procurement System (SPS) has been awarded a Grace Hopper Government Technology Leadership Award.