Grace Hopper

(redirected from Grace Murray Hopper)

Hopper, Grace,

1906–92, American computer scientist, b. New York City as Grace Brewster Murray. She was educated at Vassar College and Yale (Ph.D., 1934). After teaching at Vassar (1931–1943), she joined the U.S. Naval Reserve, serving on active duty until 1946. Assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance's computation project at Harvard, she worked on the Mark series of computers. At the conclusion of World War II she began her search for a means of making computer programs easier to write. Her answer was the compiler, a specialized program that translates instructions written in a programming language into the binary coding of machine language. In 1952 she unveiled the A-0 compiler, and Hopper began working on a compiler oriented to business tasks. In 1955 she introduced FLOW-MATIC, which became the prototype for the first commercially successful business-oriented programming languageprogramming language,
syntax, grammar, and symbols or words used to give instructions to a computer. Development of Low-Level Languages

All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is
..... Click the link for more information.
, COBOL. Hopper returned to active duty with the Navy in 1967, charged with leading the effort to combine various versions of COBOL into USA Standard COBOL. She retired in 1986 with the rank of rear admiral.

Bibliography

See biography by K. W. Beyer (2009).

Grace Hopper

(person)
US Navy Rear Admiral Grace Brewster Hopper (1906-12-09 to 1992-01-01), n?e Grace Brewster Murray.

Hopper is believed to have concieved the concept of the compiler with the A-0 in 1952. She also developed the first commercial high-level language, which eventually evolved into COBOL. She worked on the Mark I computer with Howard Aiken and with BINAC in 1949.

She is credited with having coined the term "debug", and the adage "it is always easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission" (with various wordings), which has been the guiding principle in sysadmin decisions ever since.

See also the entries debug and bug.

Hopper is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. In 1994, the US Navy named a new ship, the guided-missile destroyer USS Hopper, after her.
References in periodicals archive ?
Yang says he named the main character "Hopper" as a tribute to Grace Murray Hopper, one of the key figures in the history of computer science.
of Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, a pioneer in computer programming.
The college will be renamed after computer scientist and Navy Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper.
Inspired by the legacy of Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, the Anita Borg Institute, with the Association of Computing Machinery, presents the annual Grace Hopper Celebration (GHC) of Women in Computing bringing the research and career interests of women in computing to the forefront.
By using these same techniques Plant employs in her analysis, perhaps we may continue to delve into the realm of women in the history of computing as this (hi)story is told through two prominent historical figures: Ada Lovelace and Grace Murray Hopper.
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Of quotes I admire in relation to leadership is one by US Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, who said 'if you have a good idea just do it, it is easier to apologize to yourself than to lose initiative," he said.
It was in 1960 that the mathematical genius of Admiral Grace Murray Hopper led to the invention of the computer language, COBOL.
One of her proudest moments, she says, was being at the White House when Admiral Grace Murray Hopper was awarded the National Medal of Technology.
1997--Fue botado el buque USS Grace Murray Hopper, nombrado en honor de la almirante y pionera de la computacion quien programara las computadoras Mark l y ll de Harvard y que desarrollara el primer compitador.
Grace Murray Hopper, an ex-mathematics professor from Vassar.