Grace Hopper

(redirected from Grace Murray Hopper)

Hopper, Grace,

1906–92, American computer scientist, b. New York City as Grace Brewster Murray. She was educated at Vassar College and Yale (Ph.D., 1934). After teaching at Vassar (1931–1943), she joined the U.S. Naval Reserve, serving on active duty until 1946. Assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance's computation project at Harvard, she worked on the Mark series of computers. At the conclusion of World War II she began her search for a means of making computer programs easier to write. Her answer was the compiler, a specialized program that translates instructions written in a programming language into the binary coding of machine language. In 1952 she unveiled the A-0 compiler, and Hopper began working on a compiler oriented to business tasks. In 1955 she introduced FLOW-MATIC, which became the prototype for the first commercially successful business-oriented programming languageprogramming language,
syntax, grammar, and symbols or words used to give instructions to a computer. Development of Low-Level Languages

All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is
..... Click the link for more information.
, COBOL. Hopper returned to active duty with the Navy in 1967, charged with leading the effort to combine various versions of COBOL into USA Standard COBOL. She retired in 1986 with the rank of rear admiral.

Bibliography

See biography by K. W. Beyer (2009).

Grace Hopper

(person)
US Navy Rear Admiral Grace Brewster Hopper (1906-12-09 to 1992-01-01), n?e Grace Brewster Murray.

Hopper is believed to have concieved the concept of the compiler with the A-0 in 1952. She also developed the first commercial high-level language, which eventually evolved into COBOL. She worked on the Mark I computer with Howard Aiken and with BINAC in 1949.

She is credited with having coined the term "debug", and the adage "it is always easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission" (with various wordings), which has been the guiding principle in sysadmin decisions ever since.

See also the entries debug and bug.

Hopper is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. In 1994, the US Navy named a new ship, the guided-missile destroyer USS Hopper, after her.
References in periodicals archive ?
Perhaps the most exemplary and well-known instance of a woman using language and metaphor as a kind of medium to expand the topography of women in computing science is Grace Murray Hopper.
It was in 1960 that the mathematical genius of Admiral Grace Murray Hopper led to the invention of the computer language, COBOL.
The Navy Regional Data Automation Center started work on a 135,577 square foot data processing facility; the building was to become The Grace Murray Hopper Service Center.
Joan Feigenbaum,The Grace Murray Hopper Professor of Computer Science, Yale University.
He is the recipient of the ACM SigArch Maurice Wilkes Award, ACM Grace Murray Hopper Award, Tau Beta Pi Daniel C.
COBOL arose from the profound scholarship and industry of Admiral Grace Murray Hopper.
Grace Murray Hopper, a pioneer in technology who said that her greatest contribution was "all the young people I've trained.
the software integrity company, today announced that company co-founder Dawson Engler was awarded the Grace Murray Hopper Award by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) for his groundbreaking research on automated program checking that finds defects in complex computer software.
Telle Whitney in 1994 and inspired by the legacy of Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, the Grace Hopper Celebration (GHC) of Women in Computing Conference is designed to bring the research and career interests of women in computing to the forefront.
Inspired by the legacy of Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, this technical conference is the world's largest gathering of women in computing, and is designed to bring the technology, research and career interests of women in IT-related professions to the forefront.
Telle Whitney in 1994 and inspired by the legacy of Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, the GHC Women in Computing Conference is designed to bring the research and career interests of women in computing to the forefront.