a track machine that performs roadbed operations on railroad lines and removes snow from tracks. The first grading machine designed in the USSR was put into operation in 1934.
Grading machines excavate new ditches and clean old ones and grade the slopes of ditches, banks, and the ballast section. They also remove and cut away dirty ballast from the adjacent track when rails and ties have been removed, perform grading operations when additional tracks are laid, remove snow from tracks at stations and between stations, and transport the snow to unloading zones.
The most widely used type of grading machine also functions as a snowplow. Two side wings located at the middle of the machine perform grading operations. The wings consist of movable parts: the primary part, the part for ditch work, and the part for slope work. These parts are adjustable for transverse work in stations or in ditches or on banks. A snowplow is mounted at the front of the machine.
The grading machine is moved by a locomotive, which also supplies compressed air for the control system. The machine’s speed is 3–15 km/hr during grading operations and up to 40 km/hr during removal of snow from track sections between stations.