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A pictorial representation of a semanteme, such as X-reference for cross-reference.



the smallest distinctive unit of written speech, corresponding to the phoneme in oral speech—a, b, and so on. The system of graphemes of a particular writing system makes up the system’s alphabet.

The grapheme must be distinguished from the letter, which corresponds to a sound of speech (A, a, a, and so on), and from a graphic combination (that is, a collection of letters), which is regularly used in the particular writing system to designate a certain phoneme (for example, ch represents the phonemes [#x222B;], [x], and [t∫] in the French, German, and English writing systems, respectively). The term “grapheme” was introduced in 1912 by I. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.


Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Ob otnoshenii russkogo pis’ma krusskomu iazyku. St. Petersburg, 1912.
Volotskaia, Z. M., T. N. Moloshnaia, and T. M. Nikolaeva. Opyt opisaniia russkogo iazyka v ego pis’mennoi forme. Moscow, 1964.



(1) See also graphene.

(2) A displayed or printed letter of the alphabet with all of its accent marks in place. See glyph.
References in periodicals archive ?
This spelling approximation reveals a poor representational fit between phonemes, morphemes and graphemes.
Xu Shen points out when a guwen grapheme has come down unchanged into zhuanwen but is misunderstood because the word that the classifier wrote in guwen has taken on a different graphemic structure in zhuanwen (and hence the guwen grapheme is no longer understood properly as a classifier, because the original classifier-as-character-writing-the-word has been lost).
In 1582 it is recommended by Mulcaster in his principle of doubling the grapheme <l> word-finally, where it is described as required by "the swiftnesse of the pen" (Mulcaster 1582: 121).
When presented with an item (for example, a grapheme, digraph, cluster, or vowel), the children were asked to say the sound made by the item.
If students are not instructed in how to identify syllables within words, to detect the distinct spellings of consonant graphemes, and to perceive the vowel graphemes associated with the different syllable structures, automaticity in spelling and word recognition is difficult (Moats, 2000).
In Chinese, the meanings of direction words are mostly combinations of graphemes and phonemes, although some parts of the words are pictographs.
English is an alphabetic language, meaning that graphemes in the word are represented by phonetic sounds.
Context-free grapheme-to-allophone rules from the Proteus standard words rule set (Zganec Gros, 2006) translate each grapheme string into a series of allophones.
After the subject could perform this exercise with 90 to 100 percent accuracy, the mouth pictures were replaced with individual graphemes printed on plastic tiles for reading and spelling exercises.
The abilities in these clusters all involve graphemes and printed materials; and they are all taught simultaneously in school, especially in kindergarten through sixth grade.
the presence or absence of overlap of the source words in the blend: sometimes, the blend involves sequences of graphemes and/or segments that occur in both source words.