Grassland Science

Grassland Science

 

a branch of geobotany (more precisely, of biogeocenology); the scientific basis of grassland management.

The main objectives of grassland science are to establish and describe the types of grasslands and the patterns of their distribution; to elucidate the structure and dynamics of grassland biogeocenoses, including those affected by man; and to study the biological, ecological, and economic characteristics of the plants growing on grasslands. The principal methods used in grassland science are field trips to identify and map the types of grasslands and their distribution in given regions or farm areas; and field station research (including experimental stations) in typical areas, to determine the changes taking place in grassland biogeocenoses and in plant reproduction (seasonal or annual changes under natural conditions or under the influence of other factors). The field trip approach provides information for the regionalization of management methods and the correct utilization of the lands. The other approach creates a scientific foundation for the development of methods for the most efficient use and improvement of grasslands.

In the 19th century, field trips were made, and experimental field stations were set up (for example, the Rothamsted Experiment Station in Great Britain). At the beginning of the 20th century, A. K. Kaiander studied grassland vegetation in Russia in the Lena, Onega, and Kem’ floodplains. A. M. Dmitriev did similar studies of the floodplains of the Severnaia Dvina and the upper Volga. Studies that had originally been done in Tver, Vladimir, Voronezh, and Simbirsk provinces were carried out after the October Revolution of 1917 in all of the oblasts and republics. In 1922, V. R. Vil’iams and Dmitriev founded the State Grasslands Institute (the present-day V. R. Vil’iams All-Union Fodder Research Institute). In 1932-34, L. G. Ramenskii directed an inventory of natural forage lands, and data were compiled on the acreage occupied by the various types of grass-lands in the oblasts and republics. Subsequently, research was conducted by the botanical and agricultural institutions of various governmental departments. Of greatest importance were studies by A. P. Shennikov, Ramenskii, S. P. Smelov (the biology of grassland vegetation), and I. V. Larin, who directed the preparation of a three-volume survey of the forage of natural hayfields and pastures. A great deal of research on grasslands is being done in Western Europe (Great Britain, the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and Czechoslovakia) and in New Zealand.

REFERENCES

Shennikov, A. P. Lugovedenie. Leningrad, 1941.
Smelov, S. P. Teoreticheskie osnovy lugovodstva. Moscow, 1966.
Ramenskii, L. G. Izbr. raboty. Leningrad, 1971.

T. A. RABOTNOV

References in periodicals archive ?
A 2007 study at the National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science in Japan found that 1kg of beef results in more carbon dioxide emissions than going for a three-hour drive while leaving all the lights on at home (and that doesn't include the methane emitted from both ends of the cow).
Zhang received his bachelor's and master's degrees in grassland science and earned his PhD degree in agronomy from Gansu Agricultural University in China.
The findings are contained in a report compiled by the National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, which is affiliated with the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
The country's National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science, Tsukuba, examined CO2 emissions emitted by way of methane from beef cattle; the energy required to create the beef (including feed production, husbandry, transport, slaughtering, butchering and packaging); plus the environmental effects of production methods, for instance water acidification and eutrophication, with excessive nutrient runoff into lakes, rivers and ponds reducing oxygen content and CO2 absorption.
This compilation of 829 papers presented at a 2005 congress on grassland science held in Ireland is organized around the themes of improving production from grassland, relevant environmental issues, and decision support systems for grassland management.
33N56; Pioneer Hi-Bred Japan, Tokyo, Japan; 112-day relative maturity) corns at the yellow ripe stage, grown in a field at the National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science (Nasushiobara, Tochigi, Japan), were harvested (12-mm theoretical length of cut; MFH3200; Star Farm Machinery Mfg.
The animal experiment in the present study was approved by the Animal Care Committee of the National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science.