Gratian


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Related to Gratian: Valentinian II, Peter Lombard

Gratian

(grā`shən), 359–83, Roman emperor of the West (375–83). At the death of his father, Valentinian IValentinian I
, 321–75, Roman emperor of the West (364–75). He held high military rank under Julian and Jovian. After the death of Jovian, Valentinian was proclaimed emperor; he appointed his brother Valens coregent in the East.
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, he accepted the army's election of his brother, Valentinian IIValentinian II,
371?–392, Roman emperor of the West (375–92), son of Valentinian I. Upon the death of his father, he was proclaimed emperor with his brother Gratian as coregent. After the death (378) of Valens, Gratian made Theodosius I ruler in the East.
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, as his colleague. Gratian took Britain, Gaul, and Spain as his own share of the empire and acted as guardian for Valentinian in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. After the death of Valens (378), he made Theodosius ITheodosius I
or Theodosius the Great,
346?–395, Roman emperor of the East (379–95) and emperor of the West (394–95), son of Theodosius, the general of Valentinian I.
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 emperor of the East. Gratian fought successfully against the barbarians. He appointed St. AmbroseAmbrose, Saint
, 340?–397, bishop of Milan, Doctor of the Church, b. Trier, of Christian parents. Educated at Rome, he became (c.372) governor of Liguria and Aemilia—with the capital at Milan.
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 as an adviser and vigorously attacked paganism, ordering the removal of the altar of Victory from the senate house and the confiscation of the revenues of the vestal virgins and refusing the title pontifex maximus. Toward the end of his reign he neglected public affairs for hunting. In 383 he was assassinated by the followers of Maximus.

Gratian,

fl. 1140, Italian legal scholar, founder of the science of canon lawcanon law,
in the Roman Catholic Church, the body of law based on the legislation of the councils (both ecumenical and local) and the popes, as well as the bishops (for diocesan matters).
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. Almost nothing is known of his life beyond the fact that he was a monk, almost certainly Camaldolite, and that he taught at the convent of saints Felix and Nabor (San Felice) in Bologna. He was apparently very learned in scholasticism and Roman law. His great work, commonly known as the Decretum, appeared c.1140. It is a synthesis of church law, divided into three parts: the first deals with sources and principles of canon law and with ecclesiastical persons; the second, with ecclesiastical jurisdiction and property and to some extent with marriage and penance; the third, with sacraments and liturgy. Gratian, by his method, makes the compilation a systematic treatise; his commentaries, the dicta Gratiani, make up a large part of the work. The Decretum was used by the later popes and became the kernel of the Corpus juris canonici.

Bibliography

See study by S. Chodorow (1972).

Gratian

Latin name Flavius Gratianus. 359--383 ad, Roman emperor (367--383): ruled with his father Valentinian I (367--375); ruled the Western Roman Empire with his brother Valentinian II (375-83); appointed Theodosius I emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (379)
References in periodicals archive ?
Bernadette Mukakabera and Gratian Nyaminana, interviews by author, Mushaka, Rwanda, May 21, 2014.
1) The conception of just war here was substantially defined by the canonist Gratian in his Decretum and the work of his two generations of successors, the Decretists and the Decretalists, and summarized and placed in a theological framework by Thomas Aquinas.
Moral Dilemmas in Medieval Thought: From Gratian to Aquinas.
Ecclesiastical thinkers from Gratian and Augustine to churchmen through the middle ages promoted an awareness of the obligations of property and the commonality of interests that existed between benefactors and beggars (Clark).
Because of his influence and widespread connections, Symmachus in 382 led a delegation to Emperor Gratian I to appeal for the restoration of the Altar of Victory, which had recently been removed from its customary position in the Senate House in Rome.
Unlike Valentinian II's brother (and co-emperor) Gratian, Justina, Valentinian II, and apparently the majority of the court officials were Homoian Christians.
Franck described his treatise as a "war against all wars," and declared from the outset that he would draw not only on Scriptures, but also on Augustine, Ambrose, Jerome, Cyprian, Bernard of Clairvaux, Tertullian, Origen, Gregory I, Gratian, Dionysius, and others.
Taken up in the Decretum of Gratian, this flimsy and flexible definition would occupy pride of place in Christian law for many ensuing centuries.
An edict in this regard was published as far back as 1151 by Gratian.
Egypt's position was made clear by a foreign ministry statement last Tuesday after a meeting between minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit and US Envoy to Sudan Scott Gratian, which expressed Egypt's support for unity as opposed to secession.
this conception reiterated by Gratian in the twelfth century (35) and
Brief scores: All Omani Team 241 all out off 30 overs (Nadil Yousuf 69, Mohsin Gul Baig 49, Mohammed Aslam 33 and Nadeem Aslam 26; Gratian Karunaratne 2/41, Hasitha Mendis 2/43 and Sandun Gamage 2/52) lost to Sinha CT 242 for the loss of 3 wickets off 25.