Gray, John

Gray, John

 

Born 1798; died 1850. English petit bourgeois economist and Utopian socialist; follower of R. Owen.

In the pamphlet Lecture on Human Happiness (1825) and in his primary work, Social System (1831), Gray exposed capitalist exploitations, asserting that the producing classes receive only an insignificant part (one-fifth) of their labor, while the rest is appropriated by the nonproducing classes. He defended small private enterprises and holdings operating by the labor of their owner. He saw socialization of exchange as the solution to all social problems. In that, he differed from Owen, who advocated the socialization of all production and distribution. According to Gray, exploitation could be destroyed through the creation of a national bank that would issue so-called workers’ money, supposedly capable of ensuring equivalent exchange and the right of the working masses to the full product of their labor. The weakness of these ideas and their petit bourgeois character were exposed by Marx in the work Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (see K. Marx and F. Engels. Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 13. pp. 67–70).

WORKS

Sochineniia. Moscow. 1955. (Translated from English.)
References in periodicals archive ?
WREXHAM: Liam Sharpe, Liam Walsh, Matt Cook, Ross White, Aaron Simpson, Iwan Cartwright, Joel Logan, James Caton, Kayden Jackson, James Gray, John Cofie.
Dom Malonga missed a great chance in 25 minutes when he allowed Colin Hamilton to block his shot that hit the top of the bar while David Gray, John McGinn and Lewis Stevenson all had efforts saved.
Town's team for the second of their defeats by Halifax was Dick Taylor, Graeme McGifford, Paul Garner, Terry Gray, John Saunders, Terry Dolan, Martin Fowler, Steve Smith, skipper Gowling, Mick Fairclough and Lloyd Maitland.
Star names included Geoff Palmer, George Berry, Kenny Hibbitt, Willie Carr, Andy Gray, John Richards, Colin Brazier, Norman Bell and Wayne Clarke while our assistant manager at the time, Richie Barker, was also in attendance.
They had Frank Gray, John McGovern, Kenny Burns, John Robertson plus sub John O'Hare on the pitch when they beat Hamburg 1-0 in the 1980 European Cup Final in Madrid.
Thriller, starring Jack Warner, Nadia Gray, John McCallum and Christopher Lee.
We'd got good, professional players: John Burridge, Peter Daniels, they were a good backbone but particularly the likes of Andy Gray, John Richards, Kenny Hibbitt and Geoff Palmer.
The attorneys selected include: Gwilym Attwell, James Babineau, Edmond Bannon, Juanita Brooks, Ruffin Cordell, John Dragseth, Kevin Gray, John Hayden, David Healey, Gregory Madera, William Marsden, Jr.
Section 6 (clockwise from top left): Pegguy Arphexad, Stefano Gioacchini, Wayne Andrews, Julian Gray, John Beck, Dougie McGuire, Mike Marsh, Stuart Giddings, Sam Shilton, Brian Alderson.
SCOTLAND head coach Andy Robinson has withdrawn captain Alastair Kellock, Richie Gray, John Barclay, Ross Ford and Allan Jacobsen from club rugby for the remainder of the season to focus on the Rugby World Cup and beyond.
Noella White, James Lynch, Liam Gray, John White & Caroline White enjoy fun Book of love.
Back row, left to right: John McCormack, John Gray, John Lewis, Tony Flanagan, Michael McPartland, Ken Bruton, Harry Clarke, Pete Campbell, Ed Selby, Robin Davis, Michael Kirk, Jimmy McCaskell, Rob McGregor, Sister Mary Vincent.