He had been a reform member of the city council, he had been a Greenbacker
, a Labor Unionist, a Populist, a Bryanite--and after thirty years of fighting, the year 1896 had served to convince him that the power of concentrated wealth could never be controlled, but could only be destroyed.
Yet far from being symptomatic of a "long" or "great" depression, and notwithstanding occasional financial panics and the ululations of greenbackers
and silverites, the deflation went hand-in-hand with robust long-term economic growth.
It's difficult, if not impossible, to imagine how we get from the early antimonopolists and Greenbackers
and Knights (small regional parties without much of an ability to coordinate with those outside the region) to the Populists of the 1890s and then further to the Progressive and Socialist parties of the early twentieth century without considering that these were fundamentally different creatures.
the [voice of] third parties, of Greenbackers
and Libertarians and village atheists and the 'conservative Christian anarchist' party whose founder and only member was Henry Adams.
Lause has previously written about the Greenback-Labor movement, and his greatest contribution in Young America is the unprecedented attempt to draw together the National Reformers and late 19th-century greenbackers
, socialists, and populists.
Why, he asks, in a period marked by constant challenge to the major parties, did not the Greenbackers
, Single-taxers, Prohibitionists, or Populists develop into a long-standing and successful challenge to the dominant parties?
The large Union Greenback clubs, expected to line up behind an independent effort, favored "fusion" slates in which Greenbackers
and Democrats would vote together for a common slate of presidential electors.
And because disfranchisement favored the Democratic Party, other parties, such as Republicans, Populists, and Greenbackers
, often resisted.
Moreover, Summers shows how third-party challengers, especially the Prohibitionists and the Greenbackers
, bedeviled the calculations of the major party leaders, even driving some Republicans to try to bribe Prohibitionist John St.
Rather, it was the elite of the region, including Tillman, himself a wealthy planter, who directed the violent white mob to overthrow the Republican Reconstruction government, to beat back threats from Greenbackers
and Populists, and to erect and maintain the segregated state.
During the 19th century, and particularly in the West and Midwest, issue-oriented parties such as the Grangers, the Greenbackers
and the Populists gained power by allying themselves with the Democrats.
The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, a farmers' organization that had been founded in 1867, began to organize chapters in Michigan in 1872, and many Grangers were also Greenbackers