Gregory XI

Gregory XI,

1330–78, pope (1370–78), a Frenchman named Pierre Roger de Beaufort. He was the successor of Urban VUrban V,
1310–70, pope (1362–70), a Provençal named Guillaume de Grimoard; successor of Innocent VI. He was a Benedictine renowned for his knowledge of canon law.
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, who had made an unsuccessful attempt to remove the papacy from Avignon to Rome (1367–70). From the time of his election Gregory heard prophetic admonitions to go to Rome, first from St. Bridget of SwedenBridget of Sweden, Saint,
c.1300–1373, Swedish nun, one of the great saints of Scandinavia. She was a noblewoman at court and the mother of eight children. After her husband's death she founded (1346) the Order of the Most Holy Savior (the Brigettines).
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 and then from St. Catherine of SienaCatherine of Siena, Saint
, 1347–80, Italian mystic and diplomat, a member of the third order of the Dominicans, Doctor of the Church. The daughter of Giacomo Benincasa, a Sienese dyer, Catherine from early childhood had mystic visions and practiced austerities; she also
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, who visited him (1376). But the Avignon court was opposed, and Italy had again become inhospitable. The pope's absence and the death of Cardinal de AlbornozAlbornoz, Gil Álvarez Carrillo de
, 1310?–1367, Spanish and papal statesman and general, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Under Alfonso XI of Castile he became archbishop of Toledo and distinguished himself fighting the Moors at Tarifa and Algeciras.
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 had plunged the entire Italian peninsula into anarchy and violence. Florence, Milan, and Perugia revolted against papal authority. With Gregory's sanction, Robert of GenevaRobert of Geneva,
d. 1394, Genevan churchman, antipope (1378–94; see Schism, Great) with the name Clement VII. He was archbishop of Cambrai (1368) and was created (1371) a cardinal.
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 led a marauding army into Italy, returning violence for violence. Gregory finally heeded St. Catherine's pleas and returned to Rome (Jan., 1377), thus ending the Babylonian Captivity of the popes on French soil. All his efforts to bring about peace failed. He was the last of the French popes and was succeeded by Urban VIUrban VI,
1318?–1389, pope (1378–89), whose election was the immediate cause of the Great Schism; a Neapolitan named Bartolomeo Prignano; successor of Gregory XI. He was made archbishop of Acerenza (1364) and of Bari (1377).
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. The elections after his death began the Great SchismSchism, Great,
or Schism of the West,
division in the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. There was no question of faith or practice involved; the schism was a matter of persons and politics.
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. Gregory issued the first condemnation of the teachings of John WyclifWyclif, Wycliffe, Wickliffe, or Wiclif, John
, c.1328–1384, English religious reformer. A Yorkshireman by birth, Wyclif studied and taught theology and philosophy at Oxford.
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.
References in periodicals archive ?
To those in Florence rebelling against Pope Gregory XI, she wrote "Even if he were an incarnate devil we ought not to raise up our heads against him, but calmly lie down to rest on his bosom.
then spoke of "weeds planted in the garden of the church," a reference to bishops whom Pope Gregory XI had appointed.
Catherine of Siena, the 14th-century saint known for pleading with Pope Gregory XI to reform the clergy.
The English theologian John Wyclif first ran afoul of ecclesiastical authorities in 1377, when Pope Gregory XI condemned nineteen propositions drawn from his De civili dominio, a massive work completed the previous year.
Pope Urban V and his successor, Gregory XI, resisted the pressure of the French monarch, Charles V, to journey south to Italy, believing that their presence in Rome was a necessary precondition for the recovery of the Papal States.
It was chiefly her letters, advice and persistence that finally convinced Pope Gregory XI to leave Avignon, France, where the papal court had been since 1309, and return to Rome in 1376 to reform the clergy and administration of the Papal States.
The death of Gregory XI was followed by the double election of 1378.
Avignon) Gregory XI brings the papacy back from Avignon to Rome (1377).
In attempting to persuade Pope Gregory XI to launch another crusade in 1370, Catherine wrote, "Make peace, and turn the whole war against the unbelievers.
Each of the six succeeding popes who resided at Avignon also planned to take up residence in Rome, but it wasn't until 1376 that Gregory XI returned to Italy, Following his death two years later, the Rome and Avignon factions elected two rival popes.
In 1373, she confronted Gregory XI with a vision in which she dared to speak as Christ: "Gregory, why dost thou hate me?
The schism erupted in 1378 one year after Gregory XI was named the Pope in Rome, ending the sixty-seven year reign of the 'Avignon Papacy' during which time seven pontiffs ruled from that city in southern France.