Gregory XI

Gregory XI,

1330–78, pope (1370–78), a Frenchman named Pierre Roger de Beaufort. He was the successor of Urban VUrban V,
1310–70, pope (1362–70), a Provençal named Guillaume de Grimoard; successor of Innocent VI. He was a Benedictine renowned for his knowledge of canon law.
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, who had made an unsuccessful attempt to remove the papacy from Avignon to Rome (1367–70). From the time of his election Gregory heard prophetic admonitions to go to Rome, first from St. Bridget of SwedenBridget of Sweden, Saint,
c.1300–1373, Swedish nun, one of the great saints of Scandinavia. She was a noblewoman at court and the mother of eight children. After her husband's death she founded (1346) the Order of the Most Holy Savior (the Brigettines).
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 and then from St. Catherine of SienaCatherine of Siena, Saint
, 1347–80, Italian mystic and diplomat, a member of the third order of the Dominicans, Doctor of the Church. The daughter of Giacomo Benincasa, a Sienese dyer, Catherine from early childhood had mystic visions and practiced austerities; she also
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, who visited him (1376). But the Avignon court was opposed, and Italy had again become inhospitable. The pope's absence and the death of Cardinal de AlbornozAlbornoz, Gil Álvarez Carrillo de
, 1310?–1367, Spanish and papal statesman and general, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Under Alfonso XI of Castile he became archbishop of Toledo and distinguished himself fighting the Moors at Tarifa and Algeciras.
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 had plunged the entire Italian peninsula into anarchy and violence. Florence, Milan, and Perugia revolted against papal authority. With Gregory's sanction, Robert of GenevaRobert of Geneva,
d. 1394, Genevan churchman, antipope (1378–94; see Schism, Great) with the name Clement VII. He was archbishop of Cambrai (1368) and was created (1371) a cardinal.
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 led a marauding army into Italy, returning violence for violence. Gregory finally heeded St. Catherine's pleas and returned to Rome (Jan., 1377), thus ending the Babylonian Captivity of the popes on French soil. All his efforts to bring about peace failed. He was the last of the French popes and was succeeded by Urban VIUrban VI,
1318?–1389, pope (1378–89), whose election was the immediate cause of the Great Schism; a Neapolitan named Bartolomeo Prignano; successor of Gregory XI. He was made archbishop of Acerenza (1364) and of Bari (1377).
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. The elections after his death began the Great SchismSchism, Great,
or Schism of the West,
division in the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. There was no question of faith or practice involved; the schism was a matter of persons and politics.
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. Gregory issued the first condemnation of the teachings of John WyclifWyclif, Wycliffe, Wickliffe, or Wiclif, John
, c.1328–1384, English religious reformer. A Yorkshireman by birth, Wyclif studied and taught theology and philosophy at Oxford.
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.
References in periodicals archive ?
The 2013 conclave opens against the context of the 1415 papal resignation, when Gregory XI shucked off his Annulus Piscatoris.
The schism erupted in 1378 one year after Gregory XI was named the Pope in Rome, ending the sixty-seven year reign of the 'Avignon Papacy' during which time seven pontiffs ruled from that city in southern France.
Catherine's father may not have been quite so poor as he has been portrayed, and her work in getting Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome from Avignon may have had more to do with providing convenient cover than other compelling reasons.
She started dictating letters--she may never have learned to write--to people in authority, including Charles V of France, and wrote to Pope Gregory XI, urging him to move the papacy from Avignon back to Rome.
The feast was celebrated in the monasteries of Southern Italy by the ninth century and was later introduced into the Papal Chapel in Avignon in the year 1372 by a decree of Pope Gregory XI.
The letters of Pierre de Cros, chamberlain to Pope Gregory XI, 1371-1378.
Deftly and knowledgeably edited by Daniel Williman (Professor Emeritus of Latin and History, Binghamton University), "Calendar of the Letter of Pierre De Cros, Chamberlain to Pope Gregory XI (1371-1378)" is a seminal correspondence collection providing invaluable insights into the Pope most credited with the Church of Rome's acquisition of wealth.
She traveled to Avignon, France, the seat of the papacy at the time, to lobby Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome and make peace in Italy.
Even earlier, after his victory at Montechiari (1373), he failed to follow up his advantage and perhaps crush the Visconti primarily, Caferro suggests, because Pope Gregory XI was late with his payments.
Upon the death of Gregory XI in 1378, the college of cardinals elected a Neapolitan outsider to become Urban VI.
Catherine's presence is largely credited with persuading Pope Gregory XI to leave Avignon, France, in 1376 and return the papacy to Rome.
Catherine's forceful exhortations directed to Pope Gregory XI in Avignon, as well as to other prelates, have often been seen as her bold commitment to healing the wounds of the church, which of course it was.