Gregory I, Saint

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Related to Gregory the Great: Augustine of Hippo, Charlemagne

Gregory I, Saint

(Saint Gregory the Great), c.540–604, pope (590–604), a Roman; successor of Pelagius II. A Doctor of the Church, he was distinguished for his spiritual and temporal leadership. His feast is celebrated on Mar. 12.

Early Career

Gregory was born to a wealthy patrician family and at the age of 30 he was made prefect of Rome, Rome's highest civil office. He felt the call to monasticism, however, and converted (c.575) his home and others of his houses into Benedictine convents. Later (c.586), he reluctantly became abbot. In 578 he was made a deacon of Rome. From 579 to c.586 he was ambassador at Constantinople, then he served as chief adviser of Pelagius II. When commencing a missionary voyage to England, he was recalled to Rome and accomplished his aim only by sending St. Augustine of CanterburyAugustine of Canterbury, Saint
, d. c.605, Italian missionary, called the Apostle of the English, first archbishop of Canterbury (from 601). A Roman monk, he was sent to England, as the head of some 40 monks, by Pope St. Gregory I.
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 (596) and a later mission (601). He was elected pope by acclamation, accepting against his will and despite chronic illness.

Papacy

The two chief features of Gregory's lasting work are the enforcement of the papal supremacy and the establishment of the temporal position of the pope. Gregory not only legislated minutely and carefully for his immediate charges, but he interfered when necessary outside Italy; e.g., he attacked DonatismDonatism
, schismatic movement among Christians of N Africa (fl. 4th cent.), led by Donatus, bishop of Casae Nigrae (fl. 313), and the theologian Donatus the Great or Donatus Magnus (d. 355).
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 in Africa and simonysimony
, in canon law, buying or selling of any spiritual benefit or office. The name is derived from Simon Magus, who tried to buy the gifts of the Holy Spirit from St. Peter (Acts 8). Simony is a very grave sin, and ecclesiastics who commit it may be excommunicated.
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 in Gaul. Most significantly, he refused to recognize ecumenical as a title of the patriarch of Constantinople, since that title was not consistent with the divine vicegerency of the pope.

The exarch of Ravenna, representative of the Byzantine emperor in the West, claimed secular jurisdiction over Rome, and Gregory acknowledged it de jure. However, the exarch, Romanus, did nothing to help the city when it was threatened by a Lombard attack in 592. Gregory, as bishop of Rome, took command and negotiated a peace. It was ignored by the exarch, and the Lombards resumed their attack on Rome. Since Romanus deferred making peace, Gregory began independent negotiations, a new affront to the imperial dignity and an extralegal act.

In his dealings with the Lombards and the exarch, Gregory showed that if the emperor would not defend the pope, the pope would defend himself and by doing so would make himself temporally independent. Thus he set a precedent that enabled the papacy to prevent the total destruction of Rome. Yet Gregory was the important exponent of the doctrine of divided powers: the emperor was God's vicar in things temporal, the pope in things spiritual.

Gregory's encouragement of monasticism was significant historically, and his insistence on clerical celibacy and the exemption of the clergy from trial in civil courts bore great fruit later. St. Gregory contributed to the development of the Gregorian chant or plainsongplainsong
or plainchant,
the unharmonized chant of the medieval Christian liturgies in Europe and the Middle East; usually synonymous with Gregorian chant, the liturgical music of the Roman Catholic Church.
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. He was succeeded by Sabinian.

Bibliography

Gregory's works included Moralia (tr. Morals on the Book of Job, 1844–50); Dialogues, lives of saints, including St. Benedict, a widely read work all through the Middle Ages; Liber pastoralis curae (various Eng. tr., Pastoral Care, Pastoral Charge, and Pastoral Rule); homilies on the Gospel; and many invaluable letters. The Gregorial Sacramentary, a revision of the Gelasian Sacramentary (see Gelasius I, SaintGelasius I, Saint
, d. 496, pope (492–96); successor of St. Felix III (also known as Felix II). He was a firm upholder of the papal supremacy in a dispute with Anastasius, the Byzantine emperor.
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), and the Gregorian antiphonary are spurious. See also F. H. Dudden, Gregory the Great (2 vol., 1905; repr. 1967); E. C. Butler, Western Mysticism (3d ed. 1968).

References in periodicals archive ?
The order is named after Pope Gregory I, or Saint Gregory the Great, who founded the temporal power of the papacy.
They are both Knight Commanders of the Order of St Gregory the Great, which is one rung senior to Mr Gubay's honour.
Sfeir handed Fares the order of Saint Gregory the Great on behalf of Pope Benedict XVI and said the award was to pay tribute to the politician's humanitarian contributions.
In July 1996, His Holiness Pope John Paul II introduced to the Order of Saint Gregory the Great decorations for women, too, in order to acknowledge their professional accomplishments and their role in the life of the church and society.
When in Paradiso 28 Beatrice tells Dante the exact hierarchical order of the nine choirs of angels (corresponding to the nine moving heavens), she says that Dionysius got the order right, and Gregory the Great (whom Dante had followed in the Convivio) got it wrong, so that he smiled at his mistake when he arrived in heaven.
The source of the list is believed to be the 6th century Pope Gregory the Great.
A former Minister for Defence, he represented Ireland as a member of the Council of Europe for ten years from 1977 to 1987 and in 1978 was conferred with a Knighthood of the Order of St Gregory the Great by Pope John Paul I.
translates the largely allegorical comments by Origen, Gregory the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, Ambrose, Augustine, etc.
Dunn argues that recent scholarship has cast significant doubt on the role of Pope Gregory the Great as the forthright patron of the Benedictine Rule that earlier generations believed him to be.
Olson includes him in the part that deals with the break between East and West because he feels that the North African's monergism, even as modified by the semi-Pelagianism of Cassian and Gregory the Great, was bound to create eventually an insoluble conflict with the synergism of the Oriental Church.
Among the honors bestowed upon him, Pope John Paul II named Ferraro Knight Commander of Saint Gregory the Great in 1998 in recognition of his four decades of public service.
Gregory the Great Catholic School, said he is encouraged by the boy's progress and faith.