Grenadiers


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Grenadiers

 

an arm of infantry in European armies from the 17th to the 20th century. The name “grenadier” was first applied to grenade-throwing soldiers, who appeared during the Thirty Years War (1618–48). By the end of the 17th century grenadier companies were formed in all European armies (first in France in the 1670’s). Grenadiers were designated for action at the head of assault columns and on flanks. At the beginning of the 18th century, detached grenadier units appeared. By the end of the 18th century grenadiers turned into select troops that did not differ from the rest of the infantry in armament or nature of operations. Horse grenadiers, who performed the same tasks as the grenadiers in infantry, were in limited use.

In Russia, grenadier companies are mentioned for the first time in 1694 in detached regiments. In 1704 they were introduced in all infantry and cavalry regiments. In 1708 the first grenadier regiments were formed; from four to 20 were in existence from 1708 to 1725 and from 1756 to 1917. In 1811 they were brought together into two divisions, and in 1814 the Grenadier Corps, consisting of three divisions, was formed. From one to six horse grenadier regiments existed from 1709 to 1725, from 1756 to 1763, and from 1790 to 1793. In 1831 the Dragoon Life Guards Regiment was renamed the Horse Grenadier Regiment. In the guards at the beginning of the 20th century the following grenadier units existed: one cavalry regiment, one infantry regiment, and one company (palace grenadiers); in the army there were 16 infantry regiments (brought together into four divisions), four artillery brigades, one artillery battalion, and one sapper battalion. The First and Second Grenadier divisions belonged to the Grenadier Corps. Grenadiers had several differences in uniform (a picture of a burning grenade on headgear, buttons, cartridges for separate ammunition, and buckles). They have been preserved in the British guards (one regiment); in the West Germany Army motorized riflemen are called Panzer grenadiers.

References in classic literature ?
le duc saw cause to conclude that the vicomte was no longer master of his horse, and had watched him precede the first grenadiers, his highness cried, 'Musketeers, kill his horse
Lorry observed to be all of a red colour, and to have red hair, and to be dressed in some extraordinary tight-fitting fashion, and to have on her head a most wonderful bonnet like a Grenadier wooden measure, and good measure too, or a great Stilton cheese, came running into the room in advance of the inn servants, and soon settled the question of his detachment from the poor young lady, by laying a brawny hand upon his chest, and sending him flying back against the nearest wall.
A respectable lady, built on the lines of a Pomeranian grenadier, burst into the dressing-room and dropped groaning into a vacant arm-chair.
One, two--get out of the way," cried a colossal grenadier.
Phileas Fogg was seated squarely in his armchair, his feet close together like those of a grenadier on parade, his hands resting on his knees, his body straight, his head erect; he was steadily watching a complicated clock which indicated the hours, the minutes, the seconds, the days, the months, and the years.
His usual attitude and carriage were of a rather relaxed and lounging kind, but when under a special inspiration, he straightened himself, he looked like a grenadier on parade.
Whole nations fought against nations in tremendous battles, at Dresden, Lutzen, and Bautzen, and then it was that France showed extraordinary heroism, for you must all of you bear in mind that in those times a stout grenadier only lasted six months.
If Valentin's quick eye had caught a tall apple-woman, a tall grenadier, or even a tolerably tall duchess, he might have arrested them on the spot.
When the centinel first saw our heroe approach, his hair began gently to lift up his grenadier cap; and in the same instant his knees fell to blows with each other.
Worthy Miss Pinkerton, although she had a Roman nose and a turban, and was as tall as a grenadier, and had been up to this time an irresistible princess, had no will or strength like that of her little apprentice, and in vain did battle against her, and tried to overawe her.
She strode like a grenadier, was strong and upright like an obelisk, had a beautiful face, a candid brow, pure eyes, and not a thought of her own in her head.
I should undoubtedly be offended by such proceedings at home, because there they are not the custom, and where they are not, they would be impertinencies; but in America, the only desire of a good- natured fellow of this kind, is to treat his guests hospitably and well; and I had no more right, and I can truly say no more disposition, to measure his conduct by our English rule and standard, than I had to quarrel with him for not being of the exact stature which would qualify him for admission into the Queen's grenadier guards.