Franz Grillparzer

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Grillparzer, Franz

 

Born Jan. 15, 1791, in Vienna; died there Jan. 21, 1872. Austrian playwright.

Grillparzer studied law in Vienna and combined careers in literature and the civil service. In 1856 he retired and traveled around Europe. In 1826 he became acquainted with Goethe, and in 1836 in Paris he met L. Börne, who gave a very favorable evaluation of Grillparzer’s first important drama, the “tragedy of fate” The Ancestress (1817). He also became acquainted with Heine, and was a friend of Beethoven.

Grillparzer is the father of modern Austrian drama. His works were pervaded with protest against the reactionary feudal-bureaucratic regime of Chancellor Metternich and the egoistic spirit of emerging capitalist society. Thus, many of his plays were banned by the censor or were received with hostility by bourgeois audiences (for example, the comedy Thou Shalt Not Lie, 1838). However. Grillparzer’s world view was inconsistent: he saw no forces capable of countervailing the old Austria, which he despised, and in the Revolution of 1848–49 in Germany he took the side of the government.

In Grillparzer’s works the traditions of Enlightenment classicism are combined with romanticism and realism and the clarity and austerity of classical composition with romantic lyricism, symbolism, and the fervid fantasy and color of mass scenes. In the tragedy Sappho (1818) he depicted the tragic incompatibility of art and life. In Waves of the Sea and of Love (1831), Grillparzer upheld the freedom of natural craving against religious asceticism. In the plays King Ot-tocar: His Rise and Fall (1825) and The Dream, a Life (1834) he debunked lust for power and conquest and the cult of the strong man, for whom Napoleon served as prototype. Libussa (1844) conveys the humanist dream of a future society. Outstanding among Grillparzer’s short stories is “The Poor Musician” (1848), which is about the fortunes of an oppressed man of the people.

WORKS

Sämtliche Werke, vols. 1–42. Berlin, 1909–48.
In Russian translation:
P’esy. Introductory article and annotations by E. Etkind. Moscow-Leningrad, 1961.
[“Novelly.”] In Avstriiskaia novella XIX v. Moscow. 1959.

REFERENCES

Engels, F. F. Greberu, 9 dek. 1839–5 fevr. 1840. (Letter.) In K. Marx and F. Engels, Iz rannikh proizvedenii. Moscow, 1956. Page 336.
Mering, F. Literaturno-kriticheskie stat’i, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1934.
Azadovskii, K. “Gril’partser i ego zarubezhnye kritiki.” Voprosy literatury, 1968, no. 12.
Müller, J. F. Grillparzer. Stuttgart, 1963.
Naumann, W. F. Grillparzer: Das dichterische Werk, 2nd ed. Stuttgart [1967].
Wells, G. A. The Plays of Grillparzer. London [1969].

G. S. SLOBODKIN

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Il parle de Flaubert, Kierkegrd et Grillparzer comme modeles a suivre.
Taken together, Oswald's English translation of the Grillparzer verse at the outset and his ungrammatical German recollection of the verse later in the chapter anticipate his uncertain relation to psychiatry's sexual terminology near the chapter's end.
The script also draws on extracts from texts by Franca Rame and Dario Fo, Christa Wolf, Franz Grillparzer, Ursula Haas and Ulrike Meinhof -- the German militant who tried to kidnap her children.
In the year of the "Spring of the Peoples", 1848, [the Austrian dramatist] Franz Grillparzer warned of the path that leads from humanity, through nationality to bestiality.
Other chapters deal with the amazingly complicated background of the Symphony, Schubert and the Orchestra (there is controversy about Schubert's mastery of instrumental music), the Harmony of Mixed Modes, a fascinating exploration of Schubert's pioneering use of modal interchange, and finally the last chapter, Envoi - Ein Reicher Besitz, a reference to the gravestone caption for Schubert written by Franz Grillparzer, "The art of music has entombed here a rich possession, but yet more beautiful hopes.
The essay, in addition, demonstrates how Levy appropriates the racial terminology of the Austrian playwright Franz Grillparzer to engage in debate about Jewishness and national identity: "Medea's social isolation and eventual exile suggest the difficulty of maintaining a diasporic identity in the face of a (seemingly) hegemonic culture" (p.
First, Jacob Gordin's influential Medea (1897), which sparked the trend for adapting Greek tragedy into Yiddish, is observed to depart significantly from its model--Franz Grillparzer's trilogy Das goldene Vliess--with the suicide of Medea who, in the Grillparzer version, exits triumphant after murdering her children.
As a playwright to the Austrian Burgtheater Grillparzer had to submit his works to the censor before they could be produced, while the other two were not permitted to publish their books in Germany if salacious or seditious material could be found in them.
Interestingly, his use of Medea does not refer to Euripides' Medea but to the 19th- century trilogy, Das Goldene Vlies, by Franz Grillparzer.
Leaving aside some secondary figures, four writers of lasting importance are commonly considered part of the Biedermeier tendency: Franz Grillparzer, Eduard Morike, Annette von Droste-Hulshoff, and, most importantly, Adalbert Stifter.
And his poet friend Grillparzer once recorded: "The censor has broken me down--One must emigrate to North America in order to give his ideas free expression.
He then refers to the epitaph on Schubert's grave written by Franz Grillparzer, "Die Tonkunst begrub hier einen reichen Besilz aber noch viel schonere Hoffnungen" (Music buried here a rich possession but still many fairer hopes [my translation]), as the source of the myth of Schubert's neglect as a composer.