Grivna


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Grivna

 

a silver ingot that served as a unit of money and weight in ancient Rus’.

The silver grivna, a unit of weight, was distinguished from the kun (payment) grivna, a monetary and accounting unit. The grivna for weight originally equaled 1 pound of silver (96 zolotniki, where 1 zolotnik = 4.266 g). The monetary kun grivna corresponded to an equivalent in valuable furs or foreign currency. Later it was set to weigh 48 zolotniki. In the second half of the 13th century, another ingot was established that was equal to half the monetary grivna—the ruble, which finally ousted the grivna in the 15th century. In the 16th century, the grivna became a monetary unit of 10 kopeks. Hence the 10-kopek piece today is called a griven-nik.


Grivna

 

a metal band (of bronze, iron, silver, or gold) worn on the neck. It first appeared in the Bronze Age. Later, among the Medes and Persians, it was worn by aristocratic men and women. For the Gauls it was originally exclusively an ornament for women, and then exclusively a sign of merit for men who were leaders. Among the Romans, the grivna (torque) served as an award for distinguished performance in battle. The grivna was part of the dress of aristocratic men and women among the Scythians, the Sarmatians, the Kama Thyssagetae, and the Sogdians of Middle Asia. In the Middle Ages it continued to have this significance among the western and eastern Slavs, the Scandinavians, and many tribes of the Volga, Kama, Oka, and Baltic regions. In the 12th through 14th centuries, the grivna was an ornament for women in Rus’ both among the feudal masters and peasants. In the 16th century in Muscovite Rus’, it was still part of the wedding attire of bridegrooms and brides.

A. V. ARTSIKHOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Abu-Zidan FM, Abbas AK, Hefny AF, Eid HO, Grivna M.
Injury prevention expert Michal Grivna, an associate professor in the UAE University Institute of Public Health, said injuries in homes, predominantly falls, burns and poisoning, were the main reason why children were seen in the UAE hospitals.
According to a study by Dr Michal Grivna, Associate Professor at the Department of Community Medicine in UAE University, ten per cent of child deaths reported by the Ministry of Health from 2000-2006 were due to falls.
It was a request for a loan of 170,000 Grivna from a man she'd known at the university.
The study entitled 'Epidemiology and Prevention of Child Injuries in the UAE' was carried out by Dr Michal Grivna, associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, of the University of the UAE, with the support of Johnson & Johnson Corporate Citizenship Trust, as part of their Safe Kids Middle East program.
Grivna provided further insight on the types of injuries; *Aawith traffic accidents representing 63% of mortality cases *AaDrowning and falls at 10% each*AaSurveys among local population showed that over 90% had never used car seats before and that the majority of children were not restrained whether seated in front or at the rear of the car.
The JazzMN Big Band personnel for the March concert will feature alto saxophone, Brian Grivna and Pete Whitman; tenor saxophone, Dave Karr and Dale Mendenhall; baritone saxophone, Kathy Jensen; trombone, Michael Nelson, Dave Graf and Ethan Freier; bass trombone, Wade Clark; trumpet, Bob Hallgrimson, Jeff Gottwig, Dave Jensen and Tim Sullivan; guitar, Clay Moore; piano, Mary Louise Knutson; bass, Gordon Johnson; drums, Joe Pulice.
Grivna was recognized for more than 40 years of service to the industry, working at Timesavers Inc.
According to a study by Dr Michal Grivna, associate professor at the Department of Community Medicine in UAE University, ten per cent of all child mortality reported by the Ministry of Health during 2000-2006 were due to falls.
Dr Grivna carried out the follow-up interventional study among 2,000 Grade 12 students in Abu Dhabi and Al Ain schools in August.