Grivna


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Grivna

 

a silver ingot that served as a unit of money and weight in ancient Rus’.

The silver grivna, a unit of weight, was distinguished from the kun (payment) grivna, a monetary and accounting unit. The grivna for weight originally equaled 1 pound of silver (96 zolotniki, where 1 zolotnik = 4.266 g). The monetary kun grivna corresponded to an equivalent in valuable furs or foreign currency. Later it was set to weigh 48 zolotniki. In the second half of the 13th century, another ingot was established that was equal to half the monetary grivna—the ruble, which finally ousted the grivna in the 15th century. In the 16th century, the grivna became a monetary unit of 10 kopeks. Hence the 10-kopek piece today is called a griven-nik.


Grivna

 

a metal band (of bronze, iron, silver, or gold) worn on the neck. It first appeared in the Bronze Age. Later, among the Medes and Persians, it was worn by aristocratic men and women. For the Gauls it was originally exclusively an ornament for women, and then exclusively a sign of merit for men who were leaders. Among the Romans, the grivna (torque) served as an award for distinguished performance in battle. The grivna was part of the dress of aristocratic men and women among the Scythians, the Sarmatians, the Kama Thyssagetae, and the Sogdians of Middle Asia. In the Middle Ages it continued to have this significance among the western and eastern Slavs, the Scandinavians, and many tribes of the Volga, Kama, Oka, and Baltic regions. In the 12th through 14th centuries, the grivna was an ornament for women in Rus’ both among the feudal masters and peasants. In the 16th century in Muscovite Rus’, it was still part of the wedding attire of bridegrooms and brides.

A. V. ARTSIKHOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
A report published in the Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health by Grivna and colleagues last year, stated these causes of hospitalisation were relatively severe, and proportionally more frequent than in Western countries.
Dr Grivna provided further insight on the types of injuries; * with traffic accidents representing 63 per cent of mortality cases * Drowning and falls at 10 per cent each * Surveys among local population showed that over 90 per cent had never used car seats before and that the majority of children were not restrained whether seated in front or at the rear of the car.
En la semana que paso el grivna acumulo una perdida de 60% de su valor desde febrero.
According to a study by Dr Michal Grivna, Associate Professor at the Department of Community Medicine in UAE University, ten per cent of child deaths reported by the Ministry of Health from 2000-2006 were due to falls.
Dr Grivna carried out the follow-up interventional study among 2,000 Grade 12 students in Abu Dhabi and Al Ain schools in August.
3% de los mas de 60 mil millones de dolares de deuda, en medio de una caida de las reservas y una fuerte devaluacion de su moneda, la grivna.
According to a study by Dr Michal Grivna, associate professor at the Department of Community Medicine in UAE University, ten per cent of all child mortality reported by the Ministry of Health during 2000-2006 were due to falls.
oInternational studies mention extensive use of walkers can weaken leg muscles and delay normal physical development by three to four months,o said Dr Michal Grivna.
Michal Grivna of the Czech Republic expounded on school safety.
It was presented during the three-day Arab Children Health Congress by Dr Michal Grivna, associate professor, faculty of medicine and health sciences, at the University of the UAE, as part of the Safe Kids Middle East programme.
is focusing on widebelt sanders that use only contact rollers and no platens, said sales and service manager Steve Grivna.
Floating beds were also considered necessary by Jack Grivna of Linden International.