For populations of Plantago living in variable habitats, seed production had higher elasticity compared to populations living in more stable habitats in which adult survival had relatively greater elasticity (van Groenendael
and Slim 1988).
cites a month-long performance in Kediri in 1869 to exorcise smallpox.
, and two anonymous reviewers for comments on the manuscript, and to the Swedish Natural Science Research Council for financial support.
Closely related to the concepts of clonal growth and sprouting is the term vegetative reproduction (or regeneration), which covers the wide variety of mechanisms that plants have evolved for asexual reproduction (de Kroon & van Groenendael
, 1997; Harper, 1977).
Clara van Groenendael
describes in great detail the relation between jaranan and other genres in her research area of Kediri, and jaranan's social contexts, performance structure and play, ritual elements, legends behind the drama, verbal texts and cultural politics.
For basic information on the properties of projection matrices, and the computation of these limit properties and their biological interpretation, see Caswell (1986, 1989b, 1997) and van Groenendael
In the Netherlands, van Groenendael
(1985) found 20% to 30% of seed survived their first year in the seed bank, and sites that differed substantially in their effects on other aspects of life history did not differ significantly in seed bank survivorship.
3) See, for example, Victoria Clara van Groenendael
, The dalang behind the wayang (Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 1985); Bambang Murtiyoso, 'Faktor-faktor pendukung popularitas dalang' (S.
1986, Mesterton-Gibbons 1993), second derivatives of [lambda] (Caswell 1996a), and loop analysis (van Groenendael
Finally, this mismatch with evolutionary theory may be complicated by the matrix structure itself (van Groenendael
Furthermore, transitions with high elasticities contributed less to the spatiotemporal variation in [lambda] in the leguminous herb species Lathyrus vernus than expected from their elasticity values alone, because smaller variability was found in those traits (Ehrlen and van Groenendael
This relation also follows directly from loop analysis, as B is composed of two loops (the birth-to-maturity loop and the adult stasis loop), whose elasticities must sum to unity (van Groenendael