Ground Control and Instrumentation Complex

Ground Control and Instrumentation Complex

 

the aggregate of equipment and services used to control the flight of spacecraft (launch vehicles and space vehicles). It includes control and instrumentation stations on land, on the sea, and in the air. The number and location of the stationary control and instrumentation stations are determined by the necessity of ensuring continuity of control for various spacecraft and by redundancy and reliability requirements. The composition and location of the types of ground control and instrumentation used for specific types of spacecraft are determined by their orbits, the type of on-board equipment, and their flight programs.

The main types of equipment in the ground control and instrumentation complex are trajectory measurement devices (to determine the orbital parameters), telemetry devices (to monitor and diagnose the condition of the spacecraft), and programmed command equipment (to send control instructions and programs to the craft and monitor their execution). The complex also includes computing systems (electronic computers), equipment for automatic input of trajectory measurements to the computer, systems for automatic processing of the results of telemetry, equipment for receiving and transmitting television data, telegraph and telephone communications with the cosmonauts, a uniform precision time service, channels and equipment for space and ground communications, equipment for monitoring and displaying the progress of the flight, and systems for simulation of control processes.

The data coming from the spacecraft are processed by coordination computing centers, which send the necessary data to the flight control center.

A. A. BOL’SHOI and P. A. AGADZHANOV

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