Groundwater Discharge

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groundwater discharge

[′grau̇nd‚wȯd·ər ′dis‚chärj]
Water released from the zone of saturation.
Release of such water. Also known as decrement; groundwater decrement; phreatic-water discharge.

Groundwater Discharge


a rise in the level of groundwater caused by an increase in the water table in rivers during construction of reservoirs, river dams, navigation canals, and other hydraulic-engineering structures. Groundwater discharge saturates soil by seepage of water through the bottom and banks of canals, by water loss from water-supply and sewage systems, or by silting of river channels; a natural cause may be a rise in sea level.

Groundwater discharge causes soils to become marshy and saline, lowers the productivity of meadows, fields, and forests, causes sanitation in the area to deteriorate, and destroys buildings. Land is classed as flooded by groundwater when the water table has risen to a level making the area unsuitable for use: 0.6–0.9 m for meadows, 0.8–1.4 m for plowed fields, 1.2–1.8 m for orchards, 1.5–2 m for small settlements, and 3–4 m for cities.

Drainage systems are built to protect land from groundwater discharge and may be horizontal or vertical drainage or combined drainage with machine pumping. The drains are located along the borders of the endangered land. In the USSR, drainage systems have been built to control groundwater discharge on agricultural lands in the Kostroma Lowland, flooded by the Gorky Reservoir, near the city of Mary (the Karakum Canal), in Moscow (the Pererva Dam), in Kazan and Dimitrovgrad (the reservoir of the V. I. Lenin Volga Hydroelectric Power Plant), and in Nikopol’ (the Kakhovka Reservoir).


Kostiakov, A. N. Osnovy melioratsii, 6th ed. Moscow, 1960.
Zashchita territorii ot zatopleniia i podtopleniia. Moscow, 1963.


References in periodicals archive ?
Objective: "Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) is the subsurface flow of continental water to the sea or coastal water systems.
Muscat: Three pilot projects on continuous hybrid cooling using geothermal solar heat sources, submarine groundwater discharge, and IATI Wastewater pilot project, will be developed over the next three years.
Toro has already identified a saline groundwater discharge zone in the Tertiary cover on the adjacent tenement EL27301 via a geophysical survey in 2010 (Figure 1).
That gives us an idea of what the groundwater discharge was each year.
It was based on the comparison of simulated and factual (measured) groundwater level in different parts of bog and it fluctuations; because the data of direct measurements of groundwater discharge into drains are scanty and the data about groundwater discharge into the lake is lacking.
The dominant water sources are precipitation and groundwater discharge from surrounding uplands.
Microbial dissimilatory denitrification of groundwater represents an important ecosystem function that occurs before groundwater discharge (Slater and Capone 1987; Smith and Duff 1988).
Hussain N, Church TM, Kim G (1999) Use of 222Rn and 226Ra to trace groundwater discharge into the Chesapeake Bay.
The very few river reaches that flow year-round are mostly sustained by localised groundwater discharge and have high cultural, social, ecological and developmental value,' he said.
In such maps convex contours indicate the area of groundwater recharge and concave contours the area of groundwater discharge (Todd, 1980).
The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) issued mine, air, and groundwater discharge permits, following an extensive application review process that began in February 2006.

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