Guangdong

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Guangdong

or

Kwangtung

(both: gwäng`do͝ong`), province (2010 pop. 104,303,132), c.76,000 sq mi (196,891 sq km), S China. The capital is GuangzhouGuangzhou
or Canton
, city (1994 est. pop. 3,113,800), capital of Guangdong prov., S China, a major deepwater port on the Pearl River delta. Economy
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. On coastal islands and adjacent mainland territories are Hong KongHong Kong
, Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Shenzhen, Guangdong prov.
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 and MacaoMacao
, Port. Macau, Mandarin Aomen, special administrative region of China, formerly administered by Portugal (2005 est. pop. 449,000), 10.8 sq mi (28.2 sq km), adjoining Guangdong prov.
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. The island of HainanHainan
, island and province (2010 pop. 8,671,518), c.13,100 sq mi (33,940 sq km), China, in the South China Sea. The province, created in 1988, is coextensive with Hainan Island; Haikou is its capital, largest city, and major port.
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, once part of Guangdong, became a separate province in 1988. The hilly coastline is the longest of any province (constituting more than one fifth of the country's total coastline); the only real breaks to the interior are at Shantou on the Han River delta and at Guangzhou at the Pearl River delta. Inland transportation is good; before the 1950s water routes predominated, but now railroads and highways have taken over the freighting.

Between 15% and 20% of the province is under cultivation, primarily in the delta areas, which are among the most populous in China. There the climate is subtropical and the rainfall heavy most of the year. Two or three crops are generally harvested. Guangdong is the country's leading producer of sugarcane; rice and silk are other major crops, although the silk industry is no longer as important as it once was. Other commercial crops include hemp, tobacco, tea, tropical and subtropical fruits, and peanuts. Fishing in Guangdong accounts for about 20% of China's catch.

Guangdong has tungsten, iron, manganese, titanium, tin, lead, uranium, and bismuth deposits. Shale oil deposits are found in the south, and there is offshore drilling for oil; the province has several oil refineries. There are also lumber and paper mills, and food-processing, printing, cement, and fertilizer plants. The large handicraft industry, which once thrived on European trade, has dwindled, but the apparel and electronics industries grew significantly in the late 20th cent.

Guangzhou, an "open" economic city, is still the heart of the province, with a great range of manufactures. ZhanjiangZhanjiang
or Chankiang
, Cantonese Tsamkong, official Chinese name for the former French territory of Kwangchowan (325 sq mi/840 sq km) on Guangzhou Bay, S Guangdong prov., China. It was leased from China in 1898 for 99 years but was returned in 1945.
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, another "open" city, has grown significantly due to foreign trade and investment since the late 1970s. Three of the country's first four special economic zones were established in Guangdong, at Shantou, Shenzhen, and Zhuhai. In early 1990s the province accounted for two thirds of China's exports; its portion has slowly decreased as economic development has increased in other provinces. The return of Hong Kong to China in the late 1990s, however, has spurred additional growth in areas of Guangdong near the Hong Kong border.

The Cantonese constitute the bulk of Guangdong's population, which is non-Mandarin speaking. The people of the province are known around the world; one half of the overseas Chinese are from Guangdong province.

The region, originally settled by Miao, Li, and Yao tribes, continually attracted migrating groups from the north; some (notably the Hakka) retained their own languages. Guangdong came under Chinese suzerainty during the unification under the Ch'in dynasty (c.211 B.C.), and was more firmly absorbed during the Han dynasty. Guangdong was the main scene of China's early foreign contact, chiefly through Guangzhou; there was trade with the west during the Roman Empire, trade with the Arabs during the T'ang dynasty, and European trade that originated during the 16th cent. with the Portuguese. Guangdong has been a center of revolutionary activity; there the KuomintangKuomintang
[Chin.,=national people's party] (KMT), Chinese and Taiwanese political party. Sung Chiao-jen organized the party in 1912, under the nominal leadership of Sun Yat-sen, to succeed the Revolutionary Alliance.
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 was formed (1912) under the leadership of Sun Yat-sen, and there Chiang Kai-shek began his drive (1920s) for the unification of the country.

Guangdong

, Kwangtung
a province of SE China, on the South China Sea: includes the Leizhou Peninsula, with densely populated river valleys; traditionally also including Macao and Hong Kong; the only true tropical climate in China. Capital: Canton. Pop.: Pop.: 79 540 000 (2003 est.). Area: 197 100 sq. km (76 100 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
The quality of water discharged is designed to meet Class I standard specified in Discharge Limits of Water Pollutants (DB44/26-2001)of local standard in Guangdong Province and Class I A standard as set out in the national standard for the Discharge Standards on Pollutants from Urban Sewage Treatment Plants(GB18918-2002) (whichever is stricter).
Foreign Minister Abdyldayev held talks with Guangdong Vice Governor Zhao Yufang and Guangzhou Mayor Chen Jianhua addressing ways to expand cooperation between Kyrgyzstan and Guangdong Province and Guangzhou.
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On arrival at the Baiyun International airport, the prime Minister and his entourage was warmly welcomed by senior leaders of the ruling Communist Party of China of Guangdong province.
Lawmaker Andrew Cheng of the Democratic Party urged the Hong Kong government to be tough with Guangdong Province.
The center, created in an official agreement with the Economic and Information Commission of Guangdong Province, will conduct research and trials of practical applications for advanced ICT services, such as M2M* and cloud computing, along with governmental agencies, corporations, and business groups in Guangdong province.
a wholly owned subsidiary of Liberty Mutual, to prepare to establish a provincial branch in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province.
month, which covered active cooperation between Kuwait and Guangdong Province,
Coastal areas in Guangdong Province were severely affected, Chinese local media reported.
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The 'Top 500 Modern Industry Projects of Guangdong Province' is a new initiative taken by Guangdong Province, one of China's most developed provinces, to construct a modern industry structure with features of creativeness, openness, integration, concentration and sustainability.
The Group's stores are located in prime locations in the second-tier and third-tier cities in Guangdong Province.

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