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(both: gĕl`dərlənd), or


(gĕl`dərz), province (1994 pop. 1,851,400), c.1,940 sq mi (5,000 sq km), E central Netherlands. It borders on Germany in the east. ArnhemArnhem
, Ger. Arnheim, city (1994 pop. 133,670), capital of Gelderland prov., E Netherlands, a port on the Lower Rhine. It is an industrial, transportation, and tourist center. Textiles, electrical equipment, metal goods, and ships are manufactured.
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, the capital, as well as NijmegenNijmegen
, city (1994 pop. 147,018), Gelderland prov., E Netherlands, on the Waal River, near the German border. It is a rail and water transportation point and an industrial center. Its manufactures include metal products, paper, clothing, and soap.
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 and ApeldoornApeldoorn
, city (1994 pop. 149,449), Gelderland prov., central Netherlands. It has a variety of manufactures, including paper. The city is a transportation center and attracts many tourists.
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 are the chief cities. Largely an agricultural region, it is drained by the IJssel River and by the Lower Rhine and Waal rivers, which enclose the Betuwe, a fertile agricultural lowland in the southwest. The Veluwe, west of the IJssel, is an uncultivated, hilly heathland that is popular as a resort area. The region is also used as a military headquarters. The duchy of Gelderland was conquered (1473) by Charles the Bold of Burgundy, after whose death (1477) it regained its independence. It passed to the House of Hapsburg in 1543 and joined (1579) the Union of Utrecht of the Netherlands against Spain. Part of Gelderland, including Geldern, the ducal capital, was ceded (1715) by the Netherlands to Prussia.


, Guelderland
a province of the E Netherlands: formerly a duchy, belonging successively to several different European powers. Capital: Arnhem. Pop.: 1 960 000 (2003 est.). Area: 5014 sq. km (1955 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
If copying the chansonnier was indeed begun at about this time, as seems very likely, Charles, Duke of Guelders, or perhaps his wife Elisabeth of Braunschweig-Luneburg, would be the most likely candidate to have commissioned it.
Once all of these men were in power, William of Ryckel was an ally and occasional arbitrator for Henry of Guelders, while William of Holland and Henry of Guelders remained mutual supporters in all things martial and civil.
41) Since Elisabeth's major protectors--William of Ryckel, Henry of Guelders, and Philip of Clairvaux--were all dead or deposed by 1273, (42) and no records of her activities exist after 1277, it would seem that she retired from public life shortly after her involvement with the French court and may have ceased her public performances several years earlier.
On Abbot William's continued connection to Henry of Guelders, see Alain Marchandisse, La fonction episcopale a Liege aux XIIIe et XIVe siecles: etude de politologie historique (Geneva: Diffusion Libraide Droz, 1998), 371-372.
10) Henry of Guelders did not necessarily endear himself to his diocese or to the religious with whom he interacted.
However, upon his death and the election of Henry of Guelders in 1247, the deposed prior who had forced Juliana to flee was reinstated, forcing Juliana to begin her final flight from the diocese.
16) While it is true that Henry of Guelders did concern himself with beguines, primarily with administrative affairs, the evidence of Juliana of Mont-Comillon suggests that Henry was not fond of religious women whose spirituality provided them with any form of authority that might potentially challenge or question his.
42) William of Ryckel died in 1272, Henry of Guelders was deposed in 1273 about the time of the second council of Lyon, and Philip of Clairvaux's abbacy ended in 1272/3 owing to his death.
He gives the same information in a treatise on the Rhine delta (1614, 189), and again in his monumental history of the province of Guelders (1639, bk.
He is able to link the patronage of string players with the Duchess, rather than the Duke, of Guelders, and of lute pairs with two other duchesses, but does not identify any noble or burgher women as performers.