Guiana


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Related to Guiana: Dutch Guiana, British Guiana, Guiana Francesa

Guiana

(gēăn`ə, –än`–), region, NE South America. It faces the Atlantic Ocean on the north and east and is enclosed on the west and south within a vast semicircle formed by the linked river systems of the Orinoco, the Río Negro, and the lower Amazon. It includes SE Venezuela, part of N Brazil, French GuianaFrench Guiana
, Fr. La Guyane française, officially Department of Guiana, French overseas department (2005 est. pop. 195,000), 35,135 sq mi (91,000 sq km), NE South America, on the Atlantic Ocean.
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, SurinameSuriname
, officially Republic of Suriname, republic (2005 est. pop. 438,000), 63,037 sq mi (163,266 sq km), NE South America, on the Atlantic Ocean. Part of the Guiana region, it is separated from Brazil on the south by the Tumuc-Humac Mts.
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 (formerly Dutch Guiana), and GuyanaGuyana
, officially Co-operative Republic of Guyana, republic (2005 est. pop. 765,000), 83,000 sq mi (214,969 sq km), NE South America. It is bordered on the N by the Atlantic Ocean, on the E by Suriname, on the S and W by Brazil, and on the W by Venezuela.
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 (formerly British Guiana). The region consists of a cultivated coastal plain, where most of the population lives, and a forested, hilly interior, the Guiana HighlandsGuiana Highlands,
mountainous tableland, c.1,200 mi (1,930 km) long and from 200 to 600 mi (322–966 km) wide, N South America, bounded by the Orinoco and Amazon river basins, and by the coastal lowlands of the Guianas.
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. Descending from plateaus as high waterfalls, such as Kaieteur Falls (Guyana) and Angel FallsAngel Falls,
waterfall, Sp. Salto Ángel, 3,212 ft (979 m) high, SE Venezuela, in the Guiana Highlands. Springing from Auyán-Tepuí Mesa, it is the highest uninterrupted waterfall in the world.
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 (Venezuela), the rivers, notably the Caroní, Essequibo, Courantyne (Corantijn or Corentyne), Maroni, and Oiapoque, flow through low mountains, savannas, and tropical rain forests into coastal swamps and lagoons. Most of the streams are navigable only for short distances, a feature that has hindered development. The coastal plain contains rich alluvial deposits carried by ocean currents from the Amazon. The Dutch and subsequently the English reclaimed much of the tidal lands for planting sugarcane and rice, but the acreage is tiny in comparison to Guiana as a whole. Most of coastal Guiana has a monotonously hot, humid climate with heavy rainfall. The interior is inhabited by indigenous peoples and descendants of freed slaves (maroonsmaroon,
term for a fugitive slave in the 17th and 18th cent. in the West Indies and Guiana, or for a descendant of such slaves. They were called marron by the French and cimarrón by the Spanish.
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).

The Guiana coast was discovered (1498) by Columbus, who did not land there. The legend of El Dorado drew Sir Walter Raleigh to the region in 1595. The Spanish had also come in search of easy wealth, but, finding none, they left the coast open to exploitation by the Dutch, English, and French. The Dutch were the first to settle, but ownership of territory changed hands many times. After the emancipation of the slaves in the 19th cent., labor shortage proved a major problem on the European-owned plantations. It was partially offset by importing South Asians and Indonesians.

Bibliography

See J. Gimlette, Wild Coast (2011).

Guiana

, The Guianas
a region of NE South America, including Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, and the Guiana Highlands (largely in SE Venezuela and partly in N Brazil). Area: about 1 787 000 sq. km (690 000 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
The substantiation and accreditation of both Raleigh's promises and Guiana's prospects diminished somewhat both the exuberance and the originality of the original text, and Lorimer concludes that "the version of Ralegh's Discoverie which reached the public in 1596 was not an unmediated account of his experiences in Guiana but rather a carefully edited version of them" (xcv).
braziliensis CL in French Guiana raises the question of an overall increase in the incidence of this Leishmania species.
Arianespace will deliver the O3b satellites into a circular orbit at an altitude of 8062 km with the latest Soyuz launch from the Guiana Space Center in French Guiana, an orbit that is four times closer to the earth than traditional geostationary satellites, providing O3b customers with substantial performance benefits due to lower latency or delay.
The only surviving 1856 One Cent Magenta from British Guiana was put on show at Sotheby's in London and it will be auctioned in New York on June 17.
The British Guiana has not been on view publicly since 1987, when it was exhibited at Cupex 87 in Perth, Australia.
The service will be extended to Martinique, Saint-Martin, Saint-Barth and French Guiana from 1 January 2014.
He eventually stays in British Guiana for another five years.
0202 GMT on Sunday) from a launch pad at Europe's space base near Kourou, French Guiana, on the northeast coast of South America.
Clandestine gold extraction annually amounts to between five and ten tonnes in Guiana, according to the authorities.
But preliminary results in Martinique indicate 80 per cent of voters rejected the proposal while in French Guiana 70 per cent were against the change, election officials said.
The current study was part of a project designed to explore whether Hmong life in French Guiana is less stressful than in the United States.
The 35 men, 26 women and seven children had allegedly entered Suriname using forged travel documents on their way to French Guiana.