Guise


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Guise

(gēz, gwēz), influential ducal family of France.

The First Duke of Guise

The family was founded as a cadet branch of the ruling house of LorraineLorraine
, Ger. Lothringen, former province and former administrative region, NE France, bordering in the N on Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany, in the E on Alsace, in the S on Franche-Comté, and in the W on Champagne.
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 by Claude de Lorraine, 1st duc de Guise, 1496–1550, who received the French fiefs of his father, René II, duke of Lorraine and Bar. In 1513 Claude connected himself by marriage with the French royal family. He fought in the Italian WarsItalian Wars,
1494–1559, series of regional wars brought on by the efforts of the great European powers to control the small independent states of Italy. Renaissance Italy was split into numerous rival states, most of which sought foreign alliances to increase their
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 under King Francis I and was wounded (1515) at Marignano; as governor of Champagne he fought successfully against the English and the imperial troops. He was created a duke and peer by Francis I, who, however, ultimately came to regard him with distrust. Claude's daughter, Mary of GuiseMary of Guise
, 1515–60, queen consort of James V of Scotland and regent for her daughter, Mary Queen of Scots. The daughter of Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise, she was also known as Mary of Lorraine.
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, married King James V of Scotland and was the mother of Mary Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart).

The Second Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine

Claude's son François de Lorraine, 2d duc de Guise, 1519–63, became conspicuous, at the accession (1547) of Henry II, as the rival for power of Anne, duc de MontmorencyMontmorency, Anne, duc de
, 1493?–1567, constable of France. He was made a marshal (1522) by Francis I, was captured with Francis at Pavia (1525), helped negotiate (1526) Francis's release, and soon after the king's return received the governorship of Languedoc, which
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. In the final stages of the Italian Wars, François distinguished himself in the defense of Metz (1552), led the expedition to Italy against King Philip II of Spain, and after the failure of the expedition returned to defend France from English and Spanish attacks; in 1558 he took Calais from the English. With the accession (1559) of the youthful Francis II, who was married to the duke's niece, Mary Stuart, François de Guise and his brother the Charles de Guise, Cardinal de Lorraine, c.1525–1574, were given control of the government.

The brothers' arrogance, their persecution of the Protestants, and their enmity toward the princes of Bourbon and Condé led to the conspiracy of Amboise (see Amboise, conspiracy ofAmboise, conspiracy of,
1560, plot of the Huguenots (French Protestants) and the house of Bourbon to usurp the power of the Guise family, which virtually ruled France during the reign of the young Francis II.
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), which they suppressed (1560). Shortly afterward, however, the death of Francis II deprived the Guises of power; Catherine de' MediciCatherine de' Medici
, 1519–89, queen of France, daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, duke of Urbino. She was married (1533) to the duc d'Orléans, later King Henry II.
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, as regent, dominated the government. As a result, in 1561 the duke joined with Montmorency and Marshal Saint-André in the so-called triumvirate, which, at the head of the Catholic party, opposed both the HuguenotsHuguenots
, French Protestants, followers of John Calvin. The term is derived from the German Eidgenossen, meaning sworn companions or confederates. Origins

Prior to Calvin's publication in 1536 of his Institutes of the Christian Religion,
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 and the tolerant policy of the regent. The murder of Protestants at Vassy by Guise's troops brought about the outbreak of the Wars of Religion (1562–98; see Religion, Wars ofReligion, Wars of,
1562–98, series of civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars.

The immediate issue was the French Protestants' struggle for freedom of worship and the right of establishment (see Huguenots).
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), and Guise took the field against the Huguenots. Victorious at Dreux (1562), he was assassinated while preparing to attack Orléans.

The Cardinal de Lorraine was largely responsible for the persecution of the Protestants during the reign of Francis II. At the Colloquy of PoissyPoissy, Colloquy of
, 1561, conference of Roman Catholic prelates and Protestant ministers, initiated by Catherine de' Medici and Michel de L'Hôpital in the hope of bringing about a peaceful reunion of the two communions.
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 (1561) he defended Catholicism against Theodore BezaBeza, Theodore
(Théodore de Bèze), 1519–1605, French Calvinist theologian. In 1548 he joined John Calvin at Geneva and soon became his intimate friend and chief aid.
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; at the Council of Trent (1562–63) he at first upheld the independence of the Gallican church but later reversed his position and attempted to have the decrees of the council proclaimed in France. He subsequently negotiated with Philip II of Spain for Spanish support of the Catholic cause in France. After the downfall of Michel de L'HôpitalL'Hôpital or L'Hospital, Michel de
, c.1505–1573, chancellor of France under Catherine de' Medici.
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, Charles temporarily returned to power until 1570. He was the most consummate politician in his family and a master of intrigue.

The Third Duke of Guise

Charles's nephew Henri de Lorraine, 3d duc de Guise, 1550–88, son of François, fought in the Wars of Religion and cooperated with Catherine de' Medici in planning the massacre of the Huguenots on Aug. 24, 1572 (see Saint Bartholomew's Day, massacre ofSaint Bartholomew's Day, massacre of,
murder of French Protestants, or Huguenots, that began in Paris on Aug. 24, 1572. It was preceded, on Aug. 22, by an attempt, ordered by Catherine de' Medici, on the life of the Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny.
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). After the peace of 1576 he formed the Catholic League (see LeagueLeague
or Holy League,
in French history, organization of Roman Catholics, aimed at the suppression of Protestantism and Protestant political influence in France.
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), and King Henry III, although secretly afraid of the League, became its nominal head. After the death of FrancisFrancis,
1554–84, French prince, duke of Alençon and Anjou; youngest son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici. Although ill-shapen, pockmarked, and endowed with a curiously formed nose, he was considered (1572–73) as a possible husband for Queen
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, duke of Alençon and Anjou (1584), Henri de Lorraine revived (1585) the League in opposition to the Protestant Henry of Navarre (later King Henry IVHenry IV,
1553–1610, king of France (1589–1610) and, as Henry III, of Navarre (1572–1610), son of Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d'Albret; first of the Bourbon kings of France.
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), who had become heir presumptive to the throne.

War broke out between the League and Henry of Navarre. Although the king was the nominal head of the League, he was overshadowed by the immensely popular de Guise, who had designs on the throne. In May, 1588, when de Guise returned to Paris, the Parisians revolted against the king on the Day of the Barricades (May 12). However, instead of taking the throne Guise permitted Henry III to escape, and the king named him lieutenant general of France. Later in the same year, however, the king brought about his assassination.

Other Members of the Guise Family

Henri's brother Louis de Lorraine, Cardinal de Guise, 1555–88, was killed at the same time as Henri. After their deaths the leadership of the League devolved upon their brother, Charles, duc de MayenneMayenne, Charles de Lorraine, duc de
, 1554–1611, French Catholic general in the Wars of Religion (see Religion, Wars of); brother of Henri, 3d duc de Guise, and Louis de Lorraine, Cardinal de Guise.
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. Henri was succeeded by his son Charles de Lorraine, 4th duc de Guise, 1571–1640.

Henri de Lorraine, 5th duc de Guise, 1614–64, son of the 4th duke, was archbishop of Reims but became duke after the death of his older brother (1639) and of his father. He conspired (1641) against Cardinal Richelieu and was forced to live in exile for a time in Flanders. In 1647 he took part, as representative of the house of Anjou, in the insurrection at Naples against Spanish rule. Captured by the Spanish (1648), he was a prisoner until 1652. He made a new attack on Naples in 1654, then returned to Paris, where, as grand chamberlain, he played a prominent role in the social life of the court. He was succeeded by his nephew, Louis Joseph de Lorraine, 6th duc de Guise, 1650–71. With François Joseph de Lorraine, 7th duc de Guise, 1670–75, son of the 6th duke, the line came to an end.

Bibliography

See H. N. Williams, The Brood of False Lorraine (1918); H. D. Sedgwick, The House of Guise (1938).

Guise

 

a French aristocratic family, a collateral branch of the ducal house of Lorraine. During the religious wars of the 16th century, they were leaders of the Catholics.

The founder of the house of Guise was Claude (1496-1550), the third son of René II, duke of Lorraine. In 1506 he was naturalized in France, and he became the duke of Guise in 1528. François (1519-63), the son of Claude, distinguished himself in the defense of Metz against the troops of Emperor Charles V (1552) and in the taking of Calais from the English (1558). Together with his brother Charles (1525-74), cardinal of Lorraine, he was the power behind the throne of Francis II, who was married to Guise’s niece, Mary Stuart. Francois settled a score with the Huguenots who participated in the Amboise conspiracy (1560), directed against the Guises: in March 1562 he conducted a slaughter of Huguenots in Vassy. Henri de Guise (1550-88), the son of François, was one of the organizers of the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572) and was the head of the Catholic League (1576). He was a pretender to the French throne. He was killed on order of Henry III. With the end of the religious wars, the power and influence of the house of Guise declined.

REFERENCE

Forneron, H. Les Dues de Guise et leur époque, 2nd ed., vols. 1-2. Paris, 1893.

A. A. LOZINSKII

References in classic literature ?
For now Meriem, still living, had been revealed to him in a guise of progress and advancement that had carried her completely out of his life.
Durie posted on the hearthrug in the guise of Hymen's priest.
de Guise had, who so nearly became King of France, and whose cousin was Emperor of Germany.
Of course she would help me, but in that case every one in the house would become aware of my gift, and the gift itself would assume the guise of a recompense--of payment for Pokrovski's labours on my behalf during the past year; whereas, I wished to present the gift ALONE, and without the knowledge of anyone.
Have we returned to the times when Cromwell sent us bullies in the guise of charges d'affaires?
He has gone from the guddee and put on the shroud, And departed in guise of bairagi avowed!
It may be too fanciful to say that something, either in his moral or material aspect, suggested the idea that a miracle had been wrought by transforming a serpent into a man, but so imperfectly that the snaky nature was yet hidden, and scarcely hidden, under the mere outward guise of humanity.
I spoke to her of power and pride, But mystically - in such guise That she might deem it nought beside The moment's converse; in her eyes I read, perhaps too carelessly - A mingled feeling with my own - The flush on her bright cheek, to me Seem'd to become a queenly throne Too well that I should let it be Light in the wilderness alone.
Only thwarted affection in some guise could produce this feeling in an amiable young man.
The May-Day dance, for instance, was to be discerned on the afternoon under notice, in the guise of the club revel, or "club-walking," as it was there called.
He cast a glance of tenderness and admiration into the interior of the precious pouch, readjusted his toilet, rubbed up his boots, dusted his poor half sleeves, all gray with ashes, whistled an air, indulged in a sportive pirouette, looked about to see whether there were not something more in the cell to take, gathered up here and there on the furnace some amulet in glass which might serve to bestow, in the guise of a trinket, on Isabeau la Thierrye, finally pushed open the door which his brother had left unfastened, as a last indulgence, and which he, in his turn, left open as a last piece of malice, and descended the circular staircase, skipping like a bird.
All the band stared and many laughed, for never had they seen their master in such a fantastic guise before.