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musical instrument related to the lutelute,
musical instrument that has a half-pear-shaped body, a fretted neck, and a variable number of strings, which are plucked with the fingers. The long lute, with its neck much longer than its body, seems to have been older than the short lute, existing very early in the
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, modern guitars normally having six strings that are plucked with the fingers or strummed with a pick. Earlier versions had pairs of strings like the lute. The guitar usually has a flat back, sides that curve inward to form a waist, and a fretted neck. Other forms of the guitar include the 12-stringed guitar; the steel guitar, played with a metal bar to produce a sliding tone; the electric guitar; and the 4-stringed bass guitar, which, like the electric guitar, is a fixture of rock musicrock music,
type of music originating in the United States in the mid-1950s and increasingly popular throughout much of the world. Origins of Rock

Essentially hybrid in origin, rock music includes elements of several black and white American music styles: black
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 and is electronically amplified.

The traditional classical, as opposed to electric guitar, appeared as early as the 12th cent. in Spain, the country with which it is particularly associated. It was very popular there in the 16th cent., when much music was written for it. The composer Fernando Sor (1778–1839) was a brilliant guitarist who wrote many important works for that instrument. In the late 19th cent. there was revived interest in the guitar, aroused largely by the playing of Francisco Tárrega (1852–1909), one of the greatest guitar players of all time. Andrés SegoviaSegovia, Andrés
, 1893–1987, Spanish guitarist. Segovia studied at the Granada Musical Institute. He is famous for his transcriptions of early contrapuntal music, which have shown the possibilities of the guitar as a concert instrument.
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 was one of the foremost contemporary classical guitarists; he did much to stimulate interest in the instrument and its repertory, especially in 16th-century music.


See H. Turnbull, The Guitar from the Renaissance to the Present (1974); J. Tyler, The Early Guitar (1980); T. Wheeler, American Guitars (1982).



a plucked stringed instrument. It consists of a body with a narrow waist and flat soundboards, the upper one with a circular sound hole in its center; a neck holding a fretted finger board; and a head with tuning pegs. Originally, gut strings were used, but later those made of metal and nylon gained acceptance.

A guitar with four courses of paired strings was well known in 13th-century Spain. In the 17th century, a guitar with five courses, known as the Spanish guitar, gained acceptance in Italy and other European countries and in America. In Europe the instrument became very popular in the middle of the 18th century. At this time the guitar with five courses of strings began to be replaced by one with six single strings, which was tuned by fourths and thirds. In Russia, and to some extent in Poland, a seven-stringed guitar tuned by thirds (known as the Russian guitar) gained currency. Guitars with more strings were also produced. (Bass strings were added.)

Used mainly to provide accompaniment for singing, the instrument is also employed in chamber groups and solo work. It has become a folk instrument in several countries. N. Paganini wrote for the guitar, as did several outstanding 20th-century composers, including M. de Falla and H. Villa-Lobos. Prominent foreign guitarists are M. Giuliani (Italy); F. Sor, F. Tarrega, and A. Segovia (Spain); and M. L. Anido (Argentina). A. O. Sikhra, M. T. Vysotskii, M. D. Sokolovskii, and A. M. Ivanov-Kramskoi are outstanding Russian guitarists. The solo concert performances of guitar virtuosos are very successful.

Special guitar instruments that appeared in the 20th century are the Hawaiian and orchestral, or jazz, guitars. The Hawaiian guitar is held flat in the lap, and the sound is produced through use of a special plectrum and by pressing the strings against the fingerboard with a metal bar. The orchestral, or jazz, guitar has f holes, as does a violin, and it is also played with a plectrum.


Ivanov, M. Russkaia semistrunnaia gitara. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Vol’man, B. Gitara v Rossii. Leningrad, 1961.
Vol’man, B. Gitara i gitaristy. Leningrad, 1968.
Buek, F. Die Gitarre und ihre Meister, 3rd ed. Berlin [1952].
Pujol, E. La guitarra y su historia. Buenos Aires [1932].
Powrozniak, J. Gitara od A do Z. [Kraków, 1966.]



Music a plucked stringed instrument originating in Spain, usually having six strings, a flat sounding board with a circular sound hole in the centre, a flat back, and a fretted fingerboard. Range: more than three octaves upwards from E on the first leger line below the bass staff
References in periodicals archive ?
Au Theatre national Mohammed V, les festivaliers ont ete au rendez avec l'un des concerts les plus marquants de cette edition, celui de Souad Massi et le guitariste francais Eric Fernandez.
En effet, sur un rythme chtonien, marque par une virtuosite sans egal par une diva du Flamenco espagnole, accompagnee par deux chantres de haut calibre et un guitariste aux melodies magistrales.
La belle surprise de la soiree d'ouverture aura ete, sans conteste, la production du guitariste algerien Abdelhafid Djezzar qui a plonge le public dans les styles baroque et romantique en interpretant des compositions ecrites puis immortalisees par Domenico Scarletti, Napoleon Coste ou Fernando Sor.
Ses lectures sont accompagnees par des musiciens, flutiste, guitariste, violoniste ou autres.
Le flutiste Calogero Giallanza, le percussionniste Andrea Piccioni et le guitariste algerien Salim Dada ont presente au public un programme intitule [beaucoup moins que] Le reve d'Ibn Hamdis [beaucoup plus grand que] retracant le voyage de ce poete arabo-sicilien du XIIe siecle - qui a vecu en Italie, en Andalousie, en Algerie et en Tunisie - et jetant, comme lui dans ses vers, des ponts entre les deux rives de la Mediterranee.
Elle passera le temoin du spectacle, lundi, aux The Blues Ramblers Band, puis mardi a Othman El Khelloufi, dont la creation musicale enracinee dans les musiques traditionnelles et populaires marocaines sont sans cesse revisitees ou encore (mercredi) au guitariste natif de Kenitra Mood (Mahmoud Chouki) avant le baisser de rideau, sur cette scene, signe par Ferdaous, cette originaire de Meknes, qui pretera son timbre de voix aux plus grands succes de jazz et de la Soul Music.
Si j'ai lance cet appel, c'est pour decouvrir, echanger, rencontrer des jeunes musiciens qui ont cette fraicheur, notamment un musicien guitariste nomme Nadjib, qui m'avait marque lors d'une rencontre a Sidi Bel Abbes.
La, apparaissent des moments inoubliables comme, par exemple, en 2010, l'immense guitariste Louis Winsberg venu jouer dans le jardin andalou du Palais Batha.
Walid Bouguerra, jeune guitariste algerien, a ouvert le concert avec quelques pieces apaisantes de douceur, avant de ceder la place au [beaucoup moins que] Duo italien violoncelle et contrebasse [beaucoup plus grand que].
Marianne Aya Omac, auteur, compositeur, guitariste et chanteuse, est programmee pour le mardi prochain.
Ce guitariste d'un type musical tres original, le Flamenco, a commence sa tournee musicale au Maroc avec un concert a Agadir, un deuxieme a ete donne, hier, a l'Institut francais de Casablanca, alors que ce soir il donnera un autre vers 22h a la Villa des arts de Rabat et il finira sa tournee a El Jadida au Parc Mohamed V ce mercredi.
beaucoup plus grand que] Quant a son concert du soir en association avec Mehdi Nassouli, elle depeint ce guitariste comme quelqu'un [beaucoup moins que]qui vit la musique ; des que nous avons commence a jouer, nous avons eu de [beaucoup moins que]bonnes vibes[beaucoup plus grand que], nous avons fait un veritable travail de fusion entre sa musique et la mienne[beaucoup plus grand que], ajoute-t-elle.