Gujarati School

Gujarati School

 

one of the schools of Indian miniature painting (11th to 16th centuries). In content, the miniatures of this school are almost entirely illustrations of the religious books of the Jains, mainly of the Kalpasutra, the biography of Mahavira. An exception is the secular work Vasanta Vi-lasa (1451), which describes springtime and love. Originally (approximately up to the second half of the 14th century) the miniatures were painted on long, narrow palm leaves, on which the texts were also written. Their composition was distinguished by simplicity and conventionality (flat figures shown in profile or at a quarter turn, often in horizontal rows one above the other); the fine drawing of outlines and ornamentation was combined with bright paints of a local variety. In the second half of the 14th century palm leaves were replaced by paper, the composition became more complex, and elements of architecture and landscape were introduced. At the time of the Gujarat shahs (1396–1572) the Gujarati school was characterized by dynamic figures, precision of outline, and an abundance of decorative detail. The Gujarati school miniatures played a significant role in the formation of the early Rajput school, which arose in the 16th century.

REFERENCES

Tiuliaev, S. 1. Iskusstvo Indii. Moscow, 1968. Pages 111–21.
Brown, W. N. A Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of Miniature Paintings of the Jaina Kalpasutra. Washington, 1934.
Chandra, M. Jain Miniature Paintings From Western India. Ahmadabad, 1949.
The Vasanta Vilása. A Poem ... in Sanskrit and Prakrit Stanzas and Illustrated With Miniature Paintings. Edited by W. Norman Brown. New Haven, 1962.

S. I. TIULIASEV

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The first of these studies investigated Gujarati complementary schools in Leicester, while the second extended to Bengali, Chinese, Turkish and Gujarati schools in Birmingham, Manchester, London, and Leicester, respectively [and involved staff at the University of Birmingham, Birkbeck College London, Kings College London and the University of East London].