Gulf of Bothnia


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Related to Gulf of Bothnia: Baltic Sea, Aland islands

Bothnia, Gulf of:

see Baltic SeaBaltic Sea,
arm of the Atlantic Ocean, c.163,000 sq mi (422,170 sq km), including the Kattegat strait, its northwestern extension. The Øresund, Store Bælt, and Lille Bælt connect the Baltic Sea with the Kattegat and Skagerrak straits, which lead to the North Sea; the
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Bothnia, Gulf of

 

(Swedish, Bottniska viken; Finnish, Pojanlahti; from the name of the historic Swedish province Bothnia—Swedish, Botten, literally, ground, soil), the northern part of the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Finland. Length, 668 km; greatest width, 240 km; area, 117,000 sq km.

The Vaasa reefs and shoals divide the gulf into two parts, the northern Bottenvik (Gulf of Bothnia) and the southern Bottenhavet (Sea of Bothnia), which are connected by the Norra Kvarken Strait. The gulf is connected to the Baltic Sea by the Södra Kvarken Bay between the Åland Islands and the Swedish coast. The coastal region abounds with small islands.

The greatest depth is 112 m in the northern part and 290 m in the southern. The surface current is counterclockwise. A northerly current of more saline water which originates in the northern part of the Baltic is observed in the layer near the seabed. The water temperature is approximately 0° C in February and 12–13° C in August. A large continental runoff (135 cu km annually) and heavy precipitation (26 cu km annually) determine the gulf’s low salinity (1–3 parts per thousand in the north and 4–5 parts per thousand in the south). Ice forms in October and November and remains in the north until early June. Tides are mixed in the south and diurnal in the north, reaching 0.1 m. The major harbors on the Gulf of Bothnia are Vaasa, Oulu, and Pori in Finland, and Lulea and Umea in Sweden.

IU. D. MIKHAILOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Vascular plants, which can survive only due to ice erosion keeping the shores clean, grow in the Gulf of Bothnia.
Christianity spread into the northernmost Gulf of Bothnia in the fourteenth century, but elements of pre-Christian thought and folk belief flourished in the northern periphery centuries after its nominal Christianisation (Luukko 1954: 256-65, 293-6; Paavola 1998: 28-9; see also Wallerstrom 1995: 107-28; Toivo 2006).
Especially high concentrations, however, are found in herring from the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Sea and wild salmon species from these areas and the large Swedish lakes (Atuma et al.
The pounds 235,000 exhibition in Stockholm will explain the ancient technique used by fishermen in the Gulf of Bothnia for preserving herring by adding a dash of salt then letting the fish ferment.
Deltacraft, a Finnish regional airline, plans to start flights across Kvarken, the narrowest part of the Gulf of Bothnia, in the autumn.
In the mid-1980s, Swedish scientists found stunted rates of growth and reproduction among fish breeding near papermaking plants in the Gulf of Bothnia, which separates Sweden and Finland.
Insets appear for the less busy areas of the Mediterranean Sea, Northern Norway and Northern Gulf of Bothnia.
The ferry is designed for sailing between Vaasa in Finland and UmeEN in Sweden across the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea.
602 mph) on the ice of the Gulf of Bothnia in freezing winter weather.
The Gulf of Bothnia rippled under her hand as the book sagged.