Gulf of Bothnia


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to Gulf of Bothnia: Baltic Sea, Aland islands

Bothnia, Gulf of:

see Baltic SeaBaltic Sea,
arm of the Atlantic Ocean, c.163,000 sq mi (422,170 sq km), including the Kattegat strait, its northwestern extension. The Øresund, Store Bælt, and Lille Bælt connect the Baltic Sea with the Kattegat and Skagerrak straits, which lead to the North Sea; the
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Bothnia, Gulf of

 

(Swedish, Bottniska viken; Finnish, Pojanlahti; from the name of the historic Swedish province Bothnia—Swedish, Botten, literally, ground, soil), the northern part of the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Finland. Length, 668 km; greatest width, 240 km; area, 117,000 sq km.

The Vaasa reefs and shoals divide the gulf into two parts, the northern Bottenvik (Gulf of Bothnia) and the southern Bottenhavet (Sea of Bothnia), which are connected by the Norra Kvarken Strait. The gulf is connected to the Baltic Sea by the Södra Kvarken Bay between the Åland Islands and the Swedish coast. The coastal region abounds with small islands.

The greatest depth is 112 m in the northern part and 290 m in the southern. The surface current is counterclockwise. A northerly current of more saline water which originates in the northern part of the Baltic is observed in the layer near the seabed. The water temperature is approximately 0° C in February and 12–13° C in August. A large continental runoff (135 cu km annually) and heavy precipitation (26 cu km annually) determine the gulf’s low salinity (1–3 parts per thousand in the north and 4–5 parts per thousand in the south). Ice forms in October and November and remains in the north until early June. Tides are mixed in the south and diurnal in the north, reaching 0.1 m. The major harbors on the Gulf of Bothnia are Vaasa, Oulu, and Pori in Finland, and Lulea and Umea in Sweden.

IU. D. MIKHAILOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Vascular plants, which can survive only due to ice erosion keeping the shores clean, grow in the Gulf of Bothnia.
Both cases and controls were born in Sweden and resided between February 1996 and November 1997 in 12 Swedish counties on the coasts of the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea, and the largest Swedish lakes.
The Kemi chromium ore deposit, on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia in northern Finland, was discovered in 1959 and the existing open-pit mine was established in 1968 in this area.
From its commissioning in 1930, the 10K-mt/yr (copper) smelter was originally sited on the Gulf of Bothnia with an eye to minimizing environmental impacts-[SO.
The pounds 235,000 exhibition in Stockholm will explain the ancient technique used by fishermen in the Gulf of Bothnia for preserving herring by adding a dash of salt then letting the fish ferment.
salicaria population on the shore of the Gulf of Bothnia, at Br[ddot{a}]nn[ddot{o}]landet, Holmsund, about 17 km SE of Ume[dot{a}], northern Sweden (63[degree]42' N, 20[degree]25' E).
Deltacraft, a Finnish regional airline, plans to start flights across Kvarken, the narrowest part of the Gulf of Bothnia, in the autumn.
NASRIN: Well, at one point PEN arranged a peaceful place near the Gulf of Bothnia for me.
It occurs in fertile, disturbed habitats and is abundant in the deciduous phase of primary successions along the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia.
In the mid-1980s, Swedish scientists found stunted rates of growth and reproduction among fish breeding near papermaking plants in the Gulf of Bothnia, which separates Sweden and Finland.