Gulf of Finland


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Finland, Gulf of,

eastern arm of the Baltic Sea, c.285 mi (460 km) long and from c.10 to c.75 mi (15–120 km) wide, between Finland and Russia and Estonia. The shallow gulf receives the Narva River and water from Lake Lagoda and the Saimaa lakes; it is frozen from December to March. The gulf, an important corridor for Russian and Estonian shipping, contains many islands. St. Petersburg and Tallinn (Estonia) and Helsinki (Finland) are the chief ports.

Finland, Gulf of

 

the eastern arm of the Baltic Sea, situated between the USSR to the east and south and Finland to the north. It covers an area of approximately 30,000 sq km. It is 390 km long and 70 km wide at the entrance, reaching a maximum width of 130 km at Narva.

The northern shore of the Gulf of Finland is strongly indented and rocky, with many skerries. The eastern and southern shores are primarily low-lying and are composed of soft rocks; a glint line of bedrock borders the shores and, in places, extends to the gulf itself. The eastern section of the gulf is called Neva Bay and receives the Neva River. Vyborg Bay is located in the north, and Kopor’e, Luga, and Narva bays are located in the south. Depths decrease from 100 m in the east, at the entrance, to 20–30 m west of Kotlin Island; east of the island the maximum depth is 5 m. Neva Bay is 3–4 m deep, except in the Morskoi Canal, which links the port of Leningrad to water deep enough for large ships. The gulf abounds in islands, the largest of which are Kotlin, Moshchnyi, Bol’shoi Tiuters, Malyi Tiuters, Sommars, Gogland, Naissaar, and Osmussaar. There are many shallows, shoals, and bars near the shores; fish is abundant.

In the winter, the average water temperature at the surface is approximately 0°C; in August it ranges from 15°C at the entrance to 17°C and higher in Neva Bay. The temperature at the bottom is or 3°C. An ice cover forms offshore between late November, in the east, and mid-December, in the northwest; it begins to break up in the west in late April and finishes breaking up at the skerries in the first half of May. The salinity at the surface is 3–6 parts per thousand (‰), decreasing to 2‰ or less near Neva Bay. The water level fluctuates sharply, depending on wind and atmospheric pressure; it rises dramatically in Neva Bay (150–410 cm), causing flooding in Leningrad.

The major Soviet ports of Leningrad, Tallinn, and Vyborg are situated on the Gulf of Finland, as are the Finnish ports of Helsinki and Kotka.

IU. D. MIKHAILOV

References in periodicals archive ?
These two sites are only about 100 km apart, and elevated densities of the shrimp may result in the increased migration pressure across the Gulf of Finland.
The situation is particularly complex in areas such as the Gulf of Finland where the predominant air flow is oriented obliquely with respect to the coast.
The purpose of the study is to characterize the Corded Ware materials from the Rosson River and compare them to the Corded Ware materials from the territories to the west, and to the pottery traditions presented in the Gulf of Finland region in the 3rd millennium BC.
However, in the Gulf of Finland the thickness of the surface mixed layer is usually in the range 10-20 m [2] with a large variability both regionally and seasonally.
from Brunskar in the Archipelago Sea (A-AS), Tvarminne (H-Tva), Bay of Muuga on the northern Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Muu), the Roja area of the Latvian Gulf of Riga (R-GR), and the German Kiel Fjord at the southern Baltic coast (KF);
beaucoup moins que]During the joint exercise in the Gulf of Finland the ships will test communication and train joint maneuvers," the press service said in a statement.
A much finer resolution (about 500 m) is applied for the analysis of the situation in the vicinity of Tallinn Bay, which is a typical example of the deeply indented bays, characterizing the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland.
The Gulf of Finland is a narrow, shallow and ecologically vulnerable part of the Baltic Sea.
From there the gas will be transmitted via Russia's growing pipeline grid into the Nord Stream pipeline, which runs under the Gulf of Finland to Germany.
It proposes to reduce the TAC by 11% for 2013 for the central zone (from 122,553 to 108,762 tonnes) while maintaining the current TAC for the Gulf of Finland (15,419 tonnes).
According to Wired magazine, Google thought the 56-year-old building was an ideal place to build one of its massive computing facilities because it included an underground tunnel that pulls in water from the Gulf of Finland, which Google now uses to cool its servers.