Gulf of Finland


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Finland, Gulf of,

eastern arm of the Baltic Sea, c.285 mi (460 km) long and from c.10 to c.75 mi (15–120 km) wide, between Finland and Russia and Estonia. The shallow gulf receives the Narva River and water from Lake Lagoda and the Saimaa lakes; it is frozen from December to March. The gulf, an important corridor for Russian and Estonian shipping, contains many islands. St. Petersburg and Tallinn (Estonia) and Helsinki (Finland) are the chief ports.

Finland, Gulf of

 

the eastern arm of the Baltic Sea, situated between the USSR to the east and south and Finland to the north. It covers an area of approximately 30,000 sq km. It is 390 km long and 70 km wide at the entrance, reaching a maximum width of 130 km at Narva.

The northern shore of the Gulf of Finland is strongly indented and rocky, with many skerries. The eastern and southern shores are primarily low-lying and are composed of soft rocks; a glint line of bedrock borders the shores and, in places, extends to the gulf itself. The eastern section of the gulf is called Neva Bay and receives the Neva River. Vyborg Bay is located in the north, and Kopor’e, Luga, and Narva bays are located in the south. Depths decrease from 100 m in the east, at the entrance, to 20–30 m west of Kotlin Island; east of the island the maximum depth is 5 m. Neva Bay is 3–4 m deep, except in the Morskoi Canal, which links the port of Leningrad to water deep enough for large ships. The gulf abounds in islands, the largest of which are Kotlin, Moshchnyi, Bol’shoi Tiuters, Malyi Tiuters, Sommars, Gogland, Naissaar, and Osmussaar. There are many shallows, shoals, and bars near the shores; fish is abundant.

In the winter, the average water temperature at the surface is approximately 0°C; in August it ranges from 15°C at the entrance to 17°C and higher in Neva Bay. The temperature at the bottom is or 3°C. An ice cover forms offshore between late November, in the east, and mid-December, in the northwest; it begins to break up in the west in late April and finishes breaking up at the skerries in the first half of May. The salinity at the surface is 3–6 parts per thousand (‰), decreasing to 2‰ or less near Neva Bay. The water level fluctuates sharply, depending on wind and atmospheric pressure; it rises dramatically in Neva Bay (150–410 cm), causing flooding in Leningrad.

The major Soviet ports of Leningrad, Tallinn, and Vyborg are situated on the Gulf of Finland, as are the Finnish ports of Helsinki and Kotka.

IU. D. MIKHAILOV

References in periodicals archive ?
However, for the Gulf of Finland there still remain many gaps in our understanding of the variability and structure of the mean circulation, especially in the surface layer [24].
Further, the beginning of Corded Ware north of the Gulf of Finland was previously dated to around 3200 BC, but recently it has been proposed that the questionable early dates should be excluded and the beginning--in concert with the rest of Europe--be placed around 2900-2800 BC (Mokkonen 2011, 17; Nordqvist et al.
Thus, comparison of the obtained data shows that the pelagic and semi-pelagic species such as sprat, herring, and smelt apparently are more contaminated with lead in the West Estonian Vaike Vain and at the inlet to the Gulf of Finland at Tvarminne than in the Finnish Archipelago Sea.
A much finer resolution (about 500 m) is applied for the analysis of the situation in the vicinity of Tallinn Bay, which is a typical example of the deeply indented bays, characterizing the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland.
And after a good dinner in the Da Vinci restaurant and a gentle, night-time cruise across the Gulf of Finland, I swapped sunny Tallinn for grey St Petersburg.
On average permanent ice cover in the mouth of the Gulf of Finland forms by 10 February, and ice disappears from the gulf during mid-April (Seina & Peltola 1991).
2]) from shipping are calculated for vessels calling to Finnish ports in the Gulf of Finland (Table 1).
The pre-commissioning activities are already underway: for the Gulf of Finland and Central section cleaning, gauging and pressure-testing have been successfully completed, and the pressure test for South Western section now follows.
The third specialist craft used for the project is the world's largest: Allseas' Solitaire (Swiss owned and Panama flagged), which uses dynamic positioning not anchors and will lay 350 kilometres in the environmentally-sensitive Gulf of Finland and warehouses 22,000 tonnes aboard or enough for more than three days work.
The Baltic Pipeline System (BPS) came on stream in December 2001 carrying crude oil from West Siberian and Timan-Pechora oil provinces westwards to the newly completed terminal of Primorsk in the Russian Gulf of Finland.
AN ungrateful moose almost drowned her rescuers after being plucked from icy waters in the Gulf of Finland.
The pipe laying itself will be carried out by three lay barges: Saipem's Castoro Sei for most of the offshore construction, the Castoro Dieci, near the German shore (from June 2010) and Allseas' Solitaire in the Gulf of Finland (starting in September 2010).