Gullah


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Gullah

(gŭl`ə), a creole languagecreole language
, any language that began as a pidgin but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the Gullah of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and
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 formerly spoken by the Gullah, an African-American community of the Sea IslandsSea Islands,
chain of more than 100 low islands off the Atlantic coast of S.C., Ga., and N Fla., extending from the Santee River to the St. Johns River. The ocean side of the islands is generally sandy; the side facing the mainland is marshy.
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 and the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States. The word is probably a corruption of the African Gola or Gora, names of African tribes living in Liberia, but it may also be derived from Angola, whence many of the Gullahs' ancestors came. The Gullah dialect, spoken now by only a few hundred people, is a mixture of 17th- and 18th-century English and of a number of West African languages (among them Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba). The African influence on Gullah can be seen in the phonology, vocabulary, and grammar. Some African words in Gullah have entered American English, including goober ("peanut"), gumbo ("okra"), and voodoo ("witchcraft"). Du Bose Heyward's novel Porgy (1925), upon which Gershwin's opera is based, was written in the Gullah dialect.

Bibliography

See M. Crum, Gullah (1940); L. D. Turner, Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect (1973).

References in periodicals archive ?
Congress designated the Gullah Geechee Corridor, which runs from Wilmington, NC to Jacksonville, Fl.
Pacific coast; the Adirondacks in the Gilded Age and Progressive Era; early California settlement; Frank Lloyd Wright and the Prairie School; Gullah culture; the Shakers; the Hudson River in American history; the Industrial Revolution; Zora Neale Hurston; colonial New England; Mississippi Delta history and culture; mining in the Far West; the Underground Railroad; Kentucky during the Civil War; the transcontinental railroad; and the War of 1812.
Lorenzo Turner, one of the major proponents of Herskovits's position, in his study of the Gullah language spoken by blacks living on the Sea Islands of South Carolina and Georgia, wrote that Americans who have attempted to explain Gullah have greatly underestimated the extent of the African element.
The watercolor portraits span 20 years of Whyte's immersion in the African American Gullah community on Johns Island in South Carolina, centering on the church picnics, household chores, and quilt making of a group of senior Gullah women and their daughters and granddaughters.
Mary Ellen Junda and Robert Stephens of the University of Connecticut are hoping to preserve Gullah culture through a series of workshops next year with 80 elementary and high school teachers, the Associated Press reports.
Gullah speakers, facing discrimination in school and employment settings, remain virtually incarcerated in an identity that is synonymous with lack: lack of means, lack of opportunity, lack of education.
Gullah-Geechees at the enstoolment to be more than a coincidence since Nana Tubman's role as a Union spy had been instrumental in freeing hundreds of Gullahs in South Carolina during the Combahee River Raid of 1863.
I looked it up and I'm none the wiser either as the dictionary says the word juke comes from the Gullah for disorderly and then I had to look Gullah up and it's the Creole language spoken by people on the coast of South Carolina.
For ten years, watercolorist Mary Whyte painted the Gullah people, descendants of coastal Carolina slaves and members of a church community near her adopted home on Seabrook Island near Charleston, South Carolina.
Our inspiration for this project was the basket making of the Gullah people, who live along the coast of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
The Gullah people in coastal South Carolina have their roots on Bunce Island.
He does give Gullah tales in a language close to that of his source and provides a translation into standard English for those who might have hard time with Gullah.