Gumelnita

Gumelnita

 

an Aeneolithic culture of tribes inhabiting the Balkan Peninsula and leading a settled, agricultural way of life. The culture was in existence from the second half of the fourth millennium to the beginning of the third millennium B.C., according to data obtained from radioactive carbon dating. The culture was named after a site on the Danube, which was excavated by the Rumanian archaeologist V. Dumi-trescu in 1925. It was widespread in northern and southeastern Bulgaria and southern Rumania; its presence has also been revealed in the USSR in the vicinity of Odessa and southern Moldavia. The population of the Gumelnita culture lived in above-ground rectangular houses. Tools include copper axes and awls, flint arrowheads and spear tips, flat stone axes, and chisels and awls made from bone. Their ceramic work was polished gray-black, red-brown, and crude gray-yellow. Anthropomorphic vessels and idols made from clay, bone, and gold have been found, as well as decorative ornaments such as copper pins with spiral and spade-shaped heads.

REFERENCES

Passek, T. S., and V. S. Titov. “Izuchenie eneoliticheskikh poselemi kul’tury Gumel’nitsa.” In the collection Arkheologicheskie otkryliia 1965 g. Moscow, 1966.
Dumitrescu, V. “Fouilles de Gumelnita.” In Dacia, vol. 2. Bucharest, 1925.
Berciu, D. Contributii la probleme le neoliticului in Romînia in lumina noilor cercet ǎri. [Bucharest, 1961.]

V. S. TITOV

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Uruk', on the Aegean and Greece, Gumelnita symbolism (GHEORGHIU), development of pastoralism and wheeled vehicles in the Ukraine (Y.
The important distinction of these three Neolithic phenomena from the Gumelnita Culture (from 4700/ 4600 BC) is the permanence of Gumelnita settlement: repeated building and rebuilding of timber-framed wattle-and-daub structures created monumental tells.
The Laceni-Magura reach also contains a Gumelnita tell (Magura); a second tell is 2 km north (Laceni) and a third 6 km south (Vitanesti).
code sample context material Historic period Beta-147288 fine-grain channel fill wood Iron Age AA-38910 fine-grained drape unit wood AA-38911 fine-grained drape unit wood AA-38912 fine-grained drape unit wood Beta-147290 bar core-sands and gravels bone Beta-147289 bar core-sands and gravels wood end of Early Bronze Age Beta-147291 bar core-sands and gravels wood aftermath of Gumelnita tell villages Beta-147292 bar core-sands and gravels wood Beta-147293 bar core-sands and gravels wood semi-mobile Neolithic communities (Boian Culture) Beta-148762 structure/activity area Teleor 008 bone lab.