hydrogen cyanide

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hydrogen cyanide,

HCN, colorless, volatile, and extremely poisonous chemical compound whose vapors have a bitter almond odor. It melts at −14°C; and boils at 26°C;. It is miscible in all proportions with water or ethanol and is soluble in ether. Its water solution is a weak acid (see acids and basesacids and bases,
two related classes of chemicals; the members of each class have a number of common properties when dissolved in a solvent, usually water. Properties
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) commonly known as hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid. Its salts are called cyanidescyanide
, chemical compound containing the cyano group, -CN. Cyanides are salts or esters of hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid, HCN) formed by replacing the hydrogen with a metal (e.g., sodium or potassium) or a radical (e.g., ammonium or ethyl).
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. Hydrogen cyanide may be synthesized directly from ammonia and carbon monoxide or from ammonia, oxygen (or air), and natural gas. It is a byproduct of the production of coke from coal and is recovered (along with hydrogen sulfide) from coke-oven exhaust gases. It may also be prepared by reacting a cyanide salt, e.g., calcium cyanide, with a strong acid, e.g., sulfuric acid, or by thermal decomposition of formamide. Because impure hydrogen cyanide can undergo spontaneous explosive polymerization and decomposition, a small amount of stabilizer (usually phosphoric acid) is added to it. The principal use of hydrogen cyanide is in the manufacture of organic chemicals, e.g., acrylonitrile, methyl methacrylate, and adiponitrile, that are used in producing synthetic fibers and plastics. It is also used in the chemical laboratory, and is sometimes used in agriculture as a fumigant. Hydrogen cyanide is found in nature in some vegetable substances, e.g., bitter almond, peach stones, cherry and cherry laurel leaves, and sorghum; it is usually combined in glycoside molecules (see sugarsugar,
compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen belonging to a class of substances called carbohydrates. Sugars fall into three groups: the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. The monosaccharides are the simple sugars; they include fructose and glucose.
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) and is released when they are broken down by enzymes during metabolism.

hydrogen cyanide

[′hī·drə·jən ′sī·ə‚nīd]
(inorganic chemistry)
References in periodicals archive ?
At each harvest, four samples of foliage were taken separately from each cassava variety for analysis of the chemical composition and HCN content.
Pearson's correlation (r) of HCN was assessed among cultivars and nitrogen levels.
First, 36 full-time staff nurses working in ten randomly selected HCAs provided information for the investment costs using HCN cost elements and the measurement of time consumption (HCN activities and services); both were used as a basis for calculating the HCN cost.
By way of illustration, Larmer, who was an editor at HCN for 10 years, pointed out that one of the paper's stories he's most proud of was published in 1996 when President Bill Clinton created the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument from 1.
The cytopathology files at the University Hospital of SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, dated between January 1993 and December 1998 were reviewed for cytologic diagnosis of HCN, nonneoplastic thyroid with prominent Hurthle cell component, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
5 years in practice, while HCN and CHN averaged 19.
HCN laden air from the stripping tower is directed to a recovery tower where HCN is recovered into sodium hydroxide or hydrated lime.
Le coordinateur du HCN Riad Hijab rejoindra cette delegation plus tard dans la journee et les entretiens avec l'emissaire special de l'ONU pour la Syrie Staffan de Mistura commenceront "peut-etre demain", a-t-il precise.
Forme en decembre 2015 a Ryad, le HCN refusait de participer aux discussions en Suisse tant que les bombardements de civils et le siege de localites syriennes se poursuivaient.
Under the study, a Nokia Lumia 520 smartphone will be offered to 100 Medicaid diabetic patients from a number of HCN community health centers in the Miami area.
The HCN content in cassava, after entering the animal, is converted to thiocyanate (SCN-), an antioxidant that stimulates immunity (Utarak, 2008).
26 August 2010 - Hyundai Securities (SEO:003450) will lead arrange the initial public offering (IPO) of Hyundai Communications & Network, or HCN, the operator of the South Korean cable network, the local bourse said today upon clearing the listing.