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human immunodeficiency virus, either of two closely related retrovirusesretrovirus,
type of RNA virus that, unlike other RNA viruses, reproduces by transcribing itself into DNA. An enzyme called reverse transcriptase allows a retrovirus's RNA to act as the template for this RNA-to-DNA transcription.
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 that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. HIV-2, seen more often in western Africa, has a slower course than HIV-1. There are many strains of both types and the virus mutates rapidly, a trait that has made it especially difficult for researchers to find an effective treatment or vaccine. In many cases, a person's immune system will fight off the invasion of HIV for many years, producing billions of CD4 cells daily, always trying to keep up with the HIV's mutations, before it succumbs and permits the well-known signs of AIDS to develop.

HIV is especially lethal because it attacks the very immune system cells (variously called T4, CD4, or T-helper lymphocytes) that would ordinarily fight off such a viral infection. Receptors on these cells appear to enable the viral RNA to enter the cell. As with all retroviruses, once the RNA is inside the cell, an enzyme called reverse transcriptase allows it to act as the template for its own RNA to DNA transcription. The resultant viral DNA inserts itself into a cell's DNA and is reproduced along with the cell and its daughters. In 2012 the Food and Drug Administration approved a pill that combines two antiretroviral drugs, tenofovir and emtricitabine, for use in preventing infection with HIV, and two years later the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention called for the drug combination to be prescribed to uninfected patients who are at risk for AIDS in an effort to reduce number of new HIV infections.

The exact origin of the virus in humans is unclear. Scientists surmise that HIV-1 jumped from African chimpanzees, who harbor a similar strain of SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), to humans via the butchering of meat or an animal bite. The first case documented in humans dates from 1959, but genetic analysis published in 2008 estimated that it originated some time between 1884 and 1924. A 2014 analysis suggested that the most widespread form of HIV-1 in humans originated in 1920s in what was then the Belgian Congo. AIDS is believed to have spread to the Caribbean in the 1960s and the United States in the early 1970s. The virus was isolated by Luc MontagnierMontagnier, Luc Antoine,
1932–, French virologist, M.D. Sorbonne, 1960. Montagnier was a researcher at the Medical Research Council at Carshalton, London (1960–63), the Institute of Virology in Glasgow, Scotland (1963–65), and the Curie Institute in Orsay,
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 of France's Pasteur Institute in 1983. It went through several name changes before the official name, human immunodeficiency virus, was agreed upon.


References in periodicals archive ?
Insertive anal intercourse was significantly less likely with HIV-negative partners or unknown serostatus partners, compared with HIV-positive partners.
This careful research in 54 HIV-positive men (2) found that the HIV viral load set point was eight times higher in people with a high anxiety level--who also responded less well to antiretroviral treatment, with only about one-eighth tile reduction in viral load of other patients, when both began HAART for the first time.
Massachusetts' Senate leadership has worked to expand eligibility for benefits to HIV-positive individuals who are at or below 200 percent of the federal poverty level.
As part of the larger randomized control trial evaluation of Safer Choices, the authors were able to compare students who heard the HIV-positive speaker as part of the multicomponent Safer Choices program to students in a subsection of the study's control group which consisted of students who heard the HIV-positive speaker in conjunction with a short 5-lesson knowledge-based HIV prevention program and to students in the control group who did not hear the speaker.
In a review of twenty-six patients, Wijesekera and colleagues suggested in open fractures managed with internal fixation, postoperative wound infection rates were significantly increased in HIV-positive population compared to HIV-negative controls.
US researchers performed this analysis to estimate how many years of life HIV-positive people lose if they smoke--and how many years of life they regain if they quit.
Manulife Canada chief executive Marianne Harrison said, Manulife was the first insurer to underwrite people with diabetes, and we are continuing in that tradition by making life insurance a possibility for the more than 75,000 Canadians who have tested HIV-positive
In a study of 2000 US veterans, all-cause mortality was more than 80% higher in in HIV-positive smokers than HIV-positive never-smokers whether they smoked under 20 pack-years * or over 20 pack-years.
However, the lawyers for theAaAaAeAeAaAeAeA partners told TMZ that they were She "victims" and did not know that they were sleeping with an HIV-positive person.
All HIV-positive patients should be screened for chronic kidney disease at first encounter with any health service.
To decrease the global burden of TB and HIV, WHO recommends implementation and scale-up of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including intensified TB case-finding among persons living with HIV, provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling among TB patients, and provision of ART for all HIV-positive TB patients, regardless of CD4 count.