Jürgen Habermas

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Habermas, Jürgen

 

Born June 18, 1929, in Düsseldorf. German philosopher and sociologist (Federal Republic of Germany).

From 1964, Habermas was a professor in Frankfurt am Main. In 1970 he became codirector, with C. von Weizsäcker, of the Institute on the Preconditions of Human Life in the Modern World, located in Starnberg. Habermas started out as a follower of M. Horkheimer and T. Adorno; he is the most prominent member of the “second generation” of theoreticians of the Frankfurt school.

While he was one of the ideologists of the student movement of the mid-1960’s, Habermas drew away from the student demonstrations of 1968, moving toward moderate bourgeois liberal positions. Overall, the program of studies that he instituted during the 1970’s coincides with the general direction of the Social Democratic Party of Germany—that is, with the ideology of reformism; Habermas seeks to “correct” this ideology in the spirit of enlightened early-bourgeois ideals of emancipation, equality, and a politically active literary community. Combining the Frankfurt school’s traditional critique of bourgeois culture and society with attempts to “stabilize” capitalism, Habermas places particular emphasis on the development of the “lawful” bourgeois state.

Habermas holds revisionist positions with respect to Marxism. In his view, the social structure of modern capitalism is based on “class compromise,” and he posits as major goals the “neutralization” of antagonistic contradictions through public discussion and the gradual “liquidation” of ideology. This, according to Habermas, should facilitate the establishment in society of “communications free from constraints” within the framework of a “general social consensus.” He has frequently spoken out as an opponent of positivism in the social sciences and against the technocratic point of view. The basic components of Habermas’ eclectic philosophy are L. Wittgenstein’s theory of linguistic games, the principle of “mutual recognition” underlying the Hegelian conception of morality, the hermeneutics of the German philosopher H. G. Gadamer, and the psychoanalysis of S. Freud.

WORKS

Theorie und Praxis, 2nd ed. Neuwied am Rhein-Berlin, 1967.
Erkenntnis und Interesse. Frankfurt am Main, 1968.
Strukturwandel der Õffentlichkeit, 5th ed. Neuwied am Rhein-Berlin, 1971.
Technik und Wissenschaft als “Ideologie,” 5th ed. Frankfurt am Main, 1971.
Fur Logik der Sozialwissenschaften, 2nd ed. Frankfurt am Main, 1971.
Theorie der Gesellschaft oder Sozialtechnologie—was leistet die Systemforschung? Frankfurt am Main, 1971. (With N. Luhmann.)
Legitimationsprobleme im Spätkapitalismus. Frankfurt am Main. 1973.

REFERENCES

Tavrizian. G. M. “’Aktual’nyi’ variant ’kriticheskoi teorii obshchestva’.” Voprosy filosofu, 1976, no. 3.
Die Linke antwortet J. Habermas. Frankfurt am Main, 1969.
Rohrmoser, G. Das Elend der kritischen Théorie. Freiburg im Breisgau, 1970.
Glaser, W. R. Soziales und instrumentales Handeln: Probleme derTechnologie bei Arnold Gehlen und Jürgen Habermas. Stuttgart, 1972.

G. M. TAVRIZIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
If we continue to consider Raphael and Adam's discourse as a microcosm of the Habermasian theory of the public sphere.
In fact, abolitionism has a great deal to contribute to critical thinking about criminal law, and particular attention should be given--especially as it was neglected in Ruggiero's survey of the held--to the Habermasian variety of abolitionism developed by Willem de Haan (1990).
At bottom, however, Zuidervaart deploys three streams of argument and experience to establish his thesis: (a) a Habermasian account of the normative commitments and deficits of developed capitalist democracies that are differentiated into the three systems (and corresponding spheres of value) of state (the sphere of justice), economy (the sphere of resourcefulness), and culture (which Zuidervaart treats as essentially a system of publicity, hence, as the sphere of authenticity and expressiveness); (b) an Adornian account of art as the disclosure of neglected meanings that press recognitive justice claims of general significance; and (c) his own expertise about, and personal experience with, the inner workings of the contemporary non-profit world of art.
Its working hypothesis says that the theoretical framework developed by Habermasian cognitive sociology can illuminate the (communicatively) rational dimension of actual processes of ideational change, paving the way for a more realistic, yet normatively informed, perspective on public deliberation.
Intellectual capital: a habermasian introduction, Journal of Intellectual Capital 1(2): 187-200.
2006), a sociology "directed first and foremost to the decolonisation and further rationalisation of the lifeworld" (Scambler 1996:579) in the Habermasian sense of creating the conditions for a reflexive, participatory-democratic way of life.
2004), "Strategic planning and habermasian informed discourse: Reality or rhetoric", Critical Perspectives on Accounting, Vol.
However, it is the second phase of this familiar Habermasian move that is difficult to conceptualise.
In other words, Kelly posits, Zaira is emblematic of her creator's ongoing struggle to reconcile the demands of modernity and modern culture with the realization that, paradoxically, working within the Habermasian public sphere imposes inauthenticity and thus tarnishes creative and cultural agency.
In, Habermas and Foucault: Deliberative Democracy and Strategic State Analysis, Biebricher attempted to forge a way out of the Modernist/Postmodernism dualism by incorporating Foucaultian elements into a Habermasian framework.
The emergence of a Habermasian vision of dialogic consensus has clearly not occurred within this component of the inquiry.
Analyzing online Chinese communities of recent migrants in Singapore, she considers whether such a transnational public sphere meets the conditions for rational Habermasian discourse.