hacienda

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hacienda

in Spain or Spanish-speaking countries
the main house on such a ranch or plantation

Hacienda

A large estate or ranch in areas once under Spanish influence; now the main house on such an estate.

hacienda

a large landed estate in Latin America worked by various forms of unfree labour, generally with mixed farming production for subsistence, a local or regional market, and for the consumption of the owner, the hacendado. This was one of the main ways in which agricultural production was organized in colonial Latin America until the 19th century, and in some cases into the 20th. For example, from the early 17th century in New Spain, now Mexico, the hacienda was ‘a permanently inhabited territorial area, with both fallow and cultivated lands, granaries in which the products of the harvest were kept, houses for the owners and their managers, shacks for the workers, small craft workshops, and toolsheds’ (Florescano, 1987). There livestock was raised and crops grown for mines and provincial towns. A variety of means of ensuring a labour supply were used, one of the most common being DEBT PEONAGE. Important for the organization and economic decisions within the hacienda were the political and status aspirations and consumption requirements of the hacendado. Haciendas were distinguished from PLANTATIONS in as much as the latter produced one crop, generally for export and often with corporate, rather than personal, forms of ownership.

FRANK (1969) has argued that haciendas were capitalist because they produced for the market. However, the absence of free wage labour and the low levels of capital accumulation have led most observers to argue against this. Production for the market is not a sufficient criterion for being called capitalist. Some observers use the term ‘semi-feudal’ as a general description. The hacienda began to change in the 19th-century, after independence, through political interventions to establish free labour and with growing capitalist developments in agriculture. Duncan and Rutledge (1977) provide one useful summary of the variety of changes which took place: some haciendas were broken up by land reform, others became capitalist estates or plantations, but in some areas the hacienda persisted up until the mid-20th century.

Hacienda

 

a large estate in a number of Latin American countries (called estancia in Argentina, Chile, and several other countries). Haciendas arose with the seizure of the lands of the native population by Spanish colonizers. By the late 16th and early 17th centuries, haciendas had in reality turned into hereditary estates of a feudal type to which the Indians were bound. Although nominally considered personally free, the Indians were obliged to work for the landowners and, in effect, were wholly dependent upon them. Even at the present time the hacienda is the predominant type of large-scale ownership of land in most Latin American countries.

REFERENCE

Al’perovich, M. S. “O kharaktere i formakh ekspluatatsii indeitsev v amerikanskikh koloniiakh Ispanii (XVI-XVIII veka).” Novaia i noveishaia istoriia, 1957, no. 2.

hacienda

1. A large estate in North and South American areas once under Spanish influence.
2. The main house on such an estate or ranch.
References in periodicals archive ?
Con el fin de atender a estos aspectos, el trabajo se divide en tres apartados, a saber: el analisis de la Ordenanza de Intendentes de Nueva Espana en relacion con lo estipulado en la Recopilacion de leyes de Indias; el proceso de elaboracion de los libros de la razon general de Real Hacienda en los tres niveles del Erario regio novohispano contemplados tras la reforma de 1786 (las cajas reales y contadurias de rentas, las intendencias y el reino de Nueva Espana), un apartado en el que haremos hincapie en los responsables de la tarea y los conflictos que se desataron (6); finalmente, una seccion de conclusiones en la que se interpreta los alcances implicitos del proyecto reformista y las razones de su fracaso.
Los libros de la razon general de Real Hacienda en la Ordenanza de Intendentes de 1786 y la Recopilacion de leyes de Indias (1680): continuidades y rupturas
These haciendas, including 'sullied landholdings' or lands illegally or fraudulently acquired by landlords through legal maneuvers, circumvention of agrarian reform program, use of force and violence should be subject to DAR's compulsory acquisition and distribution,' Flores said.
Flores added that many haciendas have remained 'untouched' by the government's land reform program.
A diferencia de las vecinas haciendas de Columbe Grande, el Molino, Pull y Galte en las que hubo una fuerte movilizacion indigena reclamando el pago de los salarios, el acceso a los pastizales, el agua y la lena, la entrega de predios desde los anos cuarenta y cincuenta (tuaza, 2011b), en totorillas no hubo indicios de reclamo.
Ademas de la belleza del paisaje, debe existir a los alrededores de las haciendas otros elementos, como caserios donde se encuentren evidencias del patrimonio cultural de los habitantes (arquitectura, gastronomia, artesania, hallazgos arqueologicos, bosques, vegetacion originaria, entre otras).
Esta forma de produccion fue el resultado de la creciente demanda de productos agricolas y ganaderos que se inicio a finales del siglo XVI y se acentuo a lo largo del XVII, a tal grado que la hacienda se convirtio en un dominio pleno sobre los recursos naturales de la zona donde estaba establecida.
En todo caso, la entrega de mercedes estuvo condicionada por la desaparicion de estos nucleos indigenas, al igual que sucedio con otras haciendas que en ese entonces estaban consolidandose en la Nueva Galicia y la Nueva Espana.
Si bien la figura del amo era parte integral de la vida de los esclavos en las haciendas, en las minas, o en los centros urbanos; esta relacion de subordinacion continuo en algunos casos aun cuando algunos de ellos fueron reconocidos como libres.
En el siguiente ano Wolf y Mintz publicaron su estudio Las haciendas y plantaciones en Mesoamerica y Las Antillas (1975) a partir de un trabajo de campo en Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Mexico y un analisis de fuentes escritas de los siglos XIX y XX.
This is our fourth year that we've held this contest, and we are astounded with The Hacienda Foundation of St.