Hadhramaut

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Hadhramaut

or

Hadramaut

(both: hädrəmout`, –môt`), region, S Arabia, on the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea, occupying the southeastern part of Yemen. Historically, the name refers to the former Hadhramaut states, a collective term for the Quaiti and Kathiri sultanates. The chief port and city of the region is MukallaMukalla
, town (1994 pop. 94,051), S Yemen, a port on the Gulf of Aden. It is the chief settlement of the Hadhramaut and the capital of the former sultanate of Qaiti. Fish products, tobacco, and coffee are exported. Dhows are built there.
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. The Hadhramaut extends c.400 mi (640 km) from east to west, encompassing a larger area the Yemeni Hadhramaut governate. It consists of a narrow, arid coastal plain, a broad plateau averaging 4,500 ft (1,370 m) high, a region of deeply sunk wadis (watercourses), and an escarpment fronting the desert. The sedentary population, the Hadranis, live in towns built along the wadis and harvest crops of wheat, corn, millet, dates, coconuts, and coffee. On the plateau the Bedouins raise sheep and goats. The Hadhramaut is called HazarmavethHazarmaveth
, in the Bible, son of Joktan and eponym of the present-day region of Hadhramaut.
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 in the Bible.

Hadhramaut

 

a historical region in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The state of Hadhramaut arose in the region circa 1,000 B.C. Its capital was Shabwah.

References to Hadhramaut are found in the Bible, the writings of classical authors, and Sabaean inscriptions of the fifth and sixth centuries B.C. The state was apparently allied with the state of Saba at various times. For example, in the first century A.D. (according to some sources, the third century) the king of Hadhramaut concluded an alliance with the king of Saba against the Aksum kingdom. Hadhramaut is also known to have been allied with Saba and Aksum against the Himyarite kingdom in the second century A.D In the fourth century Hadhramaut was conquered by the Himyarites and was incorporated into the Himyarite kingdom.

Islam and the Arabic languages spread throughout Hadhramaut after the arrival of the Arabs in the first half of the seventh century. In the seventh and eighth centuries the region became one of the first areas to be embraced by the Kharijite movement.

Hadhramaut was ruled by Oman until the mid-11th century, when it was incorporated into the Yemenite states. In the early 19th century it was invaded by the Wahhabis. In 1888, Great Britain established a protectorate over Quaiti, the largest state in Hadhramaut, and in 1918 it established a protectorate over the Kathiri state. In the late 1930’s, Hadhramaut was incorporated into the Eastern Aden Protectorate.

As a result of the armed national liberation struggle of the people of Southern Yemen, Hadhramaut in 1967 became part of the independent People’s Republic of Southern Yemen (since 1970, the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen).

Hadhramaut

, Hadramaut
a plateau region of the S Arabian Peninsula, in SE Yemen on the Indian Ocean; formerly in South Yemen: corresponds roughly to the former East Aden Protectorate. Area: about 151 500 sq. km (58 500 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Suspected Al-Qaeda gunmen shot dead Colonel Ahmad Hameed Radman in the center of the city of Al-Mukalla, capital of Hadhramawt, the source said in press remarks.
In March a suicide bomber killed four South Korean tourists in Hadhramawt, and in August a suicide bomber who crossed into Saudi Arabia nearly assassinated the Saudi counterterrorism chief, Prince Muhammad bin Nayef.
The resin harvest was brought from Somaliland, Dhofar in western Oman, and the island of Soqotra and transported to towns in the Hadhramawt region of eastern Yemen.
The incense route, from the Hadhramawt coast on the Indian Ocean, along the eastern slopes of the west Arabia mountain range, all the way to Gaza on the Mediterranean, could be travelled in 60-70 days.
Assured security on the routes soon led to a growth in other types of trade, Spices, ebony, silks, and textiles were brought to Hadhramawt from India, while rare woods, feathers, skins, and gold arrived from nearby African coasts.
By the fifth century BC, several smaller states began to exert their independence from Saba, including Ma'in, Qataban, and Hadhramawt.
Most purchasers of the caravans' goods in Mediterranean and Mesopotamian cities were not even sure where southern Arabia was, and the traders from Saba and Hadhramawt offered little information to enlighten them.
This "discovery," which the people of south Arabia had understood for some time, allowed Mediterranean ships to sail down the Red Sea to the ports of India, Africa, and Hadhramawt on the Arabian coast, They could then purchase goods directly, by passing the expensive middlemen and taxes.
The state of Hadhramawt, which controlled the major incense-producing areas along the Arabian coast and which by this time had completely severed its allegiance to Saba, began to sell goods to the Roman merchants arriving by sea.
It said security authorities had arrested Hadhramawt Press' editor Awad Kashmeem in March, seized his personal papers, and confiscated all his belongings.