Hadrian

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Hadrian

(hā`drēən), A.D. 76–138, Roman emperor (117–138), b. Spain. His name in full was Publius Aelius Hadrianus. An orphan, he became the ward of TrajanTrajan
(Marcus Ulpius Trajanus) , c.A.D. 53–A.D. 117, Roman emperor (A.D. 98–A.D. 117). Born in Spain, he was the first non-Italian to become head of the empire. Trajan served in the East, in Germany, and in Spain. He was adopted in A.D.
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. Hadrian distinguished himself as a commander (especially in DaciaDacia
, ancient name of the European region corresponding roughly to modern Romania (including Transylvania). It was inhabited before the Christian era by a people who were called Getae by the Greeks and were called Daci by the Romans.
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) and as an administrator. Trajan's choice of Hadrian as his successor, announced after his death, caused some discontent in Rome. His reign was vigorous and judicious, and he ruled over a prosperous and relatively peaceful era. Hadrian proved his military skill in pacifying (118) MoesiaMoesia
, ancient region of SE Europe, south of the lower Danube River. Inhabited by Thracians, it was captured by the Romans in 29 B.C. It was later organized as a Roman province, comprising roughly what is now Serbia (Upper Moesia) and Bulgaria (Lower Moesia).
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. Abandoning Trajan's aggressively expansionist policy in Asia, he withdrew to the boundary of the Euphrates. In Palestine, however, he proved himself ruthless. His Romanizing policy aroused opposition there, especially when he excluded the Jews from Jerusalem. He put down (A.D. 132) the insurrection of Bar KokbaBar Kokba, Simon,
or Simon Bar Cochba
[Heb.,=son of the star], d. A.D. 135, Hebrew hero and leader of a major revolt against Rome under Hadrian (132–135). He may have claimed to be a Messiah; the Talmud relates that Akiba ben Joseph credited him with this title.
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 with great severity; the ensuing war (132–135) was the most difficult of his reign. In Rome he was generous in offering circuses and in giving alms to the poor, and he enlarged and reformed the civil service.

Hadrian traveled extensively in the empire, interesting himself in all the local affairs of state and adorning the provincial cities. In Germany he built great protective walls, and in Britain (where he had visited c.121) he had Hadrian's WallHadrian's Wall,
ancient Roman wall, 73.5 mi (118.3 km) long, across the narrow part of the island of Great Britain from Wallsend on the Tyne River to Bowness at the head of Solway Firth. It was mainly built from c.A.D.
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 constructed. He built a temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on the site of the ruined Temple at Jerusalem and renamed Jerusalem Colonia Aelia Capitolina. He also built the Arch of Hadrian in Athens, and in Rome he rebuilt the Pantheon, added to the Roman Forum, and erected a mausoleum (now Castel Sant'Angelo). His last years were spent more or less quietly in Rome and in his villa at Tibur (which has been excavated), cultivating the arts. He was learned in Greek and accomplished in poetry and music. Hadrian also patronized artists, and his love for the doomed young AntinoüsAntinoüs
, c.110–130, favorite of Emperor Hadrian, b. Bithynia. He was with the emperor constantly until on a journey in Egypt he was drowned in the Nile—some say in saving Hadrian's life.
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 was memorialized by sculptors and architects. As his successor he chose Antoninus PiusAntoninus Pius
(Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus) , A.D. 86–A.D. 161, Roman emperor (138–161). After a term as consul (120) he went as proconsul to Asia, where he governed with distinction.
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.

Bibliography

See S. Perowine, Hadrian (1987); M. T. Boatwright, Hadrian and the City of Rome (1989); A Everitt, Hadrian and the Triumph of Rome (2009).


Hadrian.

For popes of that name, use Adrian.

Hadrian

, Adrian
Latin name Publius Aelius Hadrianus. 76--138 ad, Roman emperor (117--138); adopted son and successor of Trajan. He travelled throughout the Roman Empire, strengthening its frontiers and encouraging learning and architecture, and in Rome he reorganized the army and codified Roman law
References in periodicals archive ?
But his generation surely remained in the shadow cast by the rapid decline of the Palestinian Jewish community following the Bar Kokhba Revolt and the Hadrianic persecutions which had decimated so much of the population and its leadership.
39) It should, however, be noted that the date of this plan of the fort is not known and it is very likely to be later than the Hadrianic period.
Geophysical survey has revealed the correct number of barrack-blocks for a quingenary mixed cohort, though not necessarily of the Hadrianic period.
Noting that it dates to the Hadrianic period, peaceful here, they consider features both typical and unusual.
Experts believe the 6ft 9in coffin, engraved with a central panel of The Three Graces, could be Hadrianic, for the reign of Emperor Hadrian from 117 to 138AD, known for its rapid architectural and sculptural development.
The use of a nimbus to depict the phoenix was a syncretistic innovation dating to the beginning of the 2nd century and can be seen first on a decorated liturgical garment from Saqqara of this date and on a Hadrianic coin of AD 118 (cf.
In 1972 Mr Dobson founded the Hadrianic Society to further the study of Hadrian's Wall and the Roman army.
This was replaced, again in timber, by a Flavian Basilica and it was not until the Hadrianic period that the masonry Basilica, familiar from the 19th-century excavations, was built.
The head is beautifully preserved and is one of the most important Hadrianic objects in the British Museum's collection.
Other than the evidence for the siege - which is well set out, even if one doubts the wider interpretation of it - the other significant addition to the account is the attribution of a overweening Hadrianic effect on the community, a phenomenon Mitchell has detected elsewhere in the provinces of Asia Minor and Anatolia.
It found evidence of a granary and other buildings dating from the Hadrianic period AD120-140.
If so it is possible that they came from the recently discovered Hadrianic temple which displays column bases (Professor Janos Fedak and Dr Jeno Fitz pets.