Haemophilus

(redirected from Haemophilus parainfluenzae)
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Haemophilus

A genus of gram-negative, pleomorphic bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are nonmotile and non-spore-forming.

Haemophilus influenzae was the first of the species to be isolated and is considered the type species. It was originally recovered during the influenza pandemic of 1889 and for a time was believed to be the causative agent of influenza; thus it was called the influenza bacillus. However, when this fallacy became apparent, the organism was renamed, still reflecting the historical association with influenza.

Haemophilus species are distinguished by a number of criteria. Strains of H. influenzae can be separated into encapsulated and nonencapsulated forms. Encapsulated strains express one of six biochemically and antigenically distinct capsular polysaccharides that are designated serotypes a through f. Nonencapsulated strains are referred to as nontypable. See Influenza, Meningitis

Haemophilus influenzae is a human-specific pathogen that inhabits the upper respiratory tract and is acquired by exposure to airborne droplets or contact with respiratory secretions. Nontypable strains can be isolated from the nasopharynx of up to 80% of normal children and adults at any given time, usually in association with asymptomatic colonization. Overall, these organisms are the leading cause of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and the second most common etiology of acute otitis media and sinusitis. On occasion, nontypable H. influenzae causes invasive disease such as meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, epiglottitis, or septic arthritis. Invasive disease occurs most often in neonates and in patients with underlying immunodeficiency, especially when abnormalities in humoral immunity are present.

Encapsulated strains of H. influenzae are present in the nasopharynx of only 2–5% of children and an even smaller percentage of adults. Historically, H. influenzae type b strains were the primary cause of childhood bacterial meningitis and a majority of other bacteremic diseases in children. However, in recent years the incidence of disease due to H. influenzae type b has plummeted in the United States and other developed countries, reflecting the routine use of H. influenzae conjugate vaccines. These vaccines provide effective protection against disease due to H. influenzae type b but fail to protect against non-type b strains.

Haemophilus aphrophilus, H. haemolyticus, H. parahaemolyticus, H. parainfluenzae, and H. segnis are members of the normal flora in the human oral cavity and oropharynx and have low pathogenic potential. Among these species, H. parainfluenzae is the most common pathogen and has been reported in association with a variety of diseases.

Strains of H. influenzae are increasingly resistant to a wide variety of antibiotics. Accordingly, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin is generally recommended for empiric treatment of serious disease. See Antibiotic, Drug resistance, Medical bacteriology

Haemophilus

[hē′mä·fə·ləs]
(microbiology)
A genus of gram-negative coccobacilli or rod-shaped bacteria of uncertain affiliation; cells may form threads and filaments and are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic; strictly blood parasites.
References in periodicals archive ?
Food and Drug Administration-approved indications for moxifloxacin * Infection Microorganism Acute bacterial exacerbations Haemophilus influenzae of chronic bronchitis Haemophilus parainfluenzae Moraxella catarrhalis Klebsiella pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae Staphylococcus aureus Acute bacterial sinusitis Haemophilus influenzae Moraxella catarrhalis Streptococcus pneumoniae Community-acquired pneumonia Streptococcus pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae Mycoplasma pneumoniae Moraxella catarrhalis Chlamydia pneumoniae * Compiled from reference 8.
for the five-day treatment of AECB caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis and the seven-day treatment of CAP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant strains), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Avelox is approved to treat: *Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Moraxella catarrhalis; Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant strains*), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae; Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis; and uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (uSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes.
Avelox is approved to treat: Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Moraxella catarrhalis; Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains, MIC value for penicillin 3 2 mcg/mL), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae; Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis; and uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (uSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes.
In adult and adolescent patients, Omnicef is also indicated for community acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, including beta-lactamase-producing strains, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, including beta-lactamase-producing strains, Morexella catarrhalis, including beta-lactamase-producing strains, and penicillin-susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Avelox is approved to treat: Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Moraxella catarrhalis; Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus (including penicillin-resistant strains, MIC value for penicillin is greater than or equal to 2 mcg/mL), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae; Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis; and uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (uSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes.
Avelox is approved to treat: Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Moraxella catarrhalis; Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains, MIC value for penicillin greater than or equal to 2 mcg/mL), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae; Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis; and uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (uSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes.
It is also indicated to treat acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia (adults and adolescents) due to Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase producing strains), Haemophilus parainfluenzae (including beta-lactamase producing strains), Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains only), and Moraxella catarrhalis (including beta-lactamase producing strains).
Avelox is approved to treat: Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Moraxella catarrhalis; Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains, MIC value for penicillin > or = 2 mcg/mL), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae; Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis; and uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (uSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes.
Avelox is approved to treat: Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Moraxella catarrhalis; Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains, MIC value for penicillin greater than or equal to 2 mg/mL), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae; Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis; and uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (uSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes.
Avelox is approved to treat Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains, MIC value for penicillin > or = 2 micro g/mL), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae; Acute Bacterial Sinusitis (ABS) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis; Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Moraxella catarrhalis; and uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (uSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes.

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